Aberrant CEACAM19 expression is associated with metastatic phenotype in penile cancer
Authors Hu X, Chen M, Li Y, Wang Y, Wen S, Jun F
Received 26 October 2018
Accepted for publication 7 December 2018
Published 14 January 2019 Volume 2019:11 Pages 715—725
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Andrew Yee
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Kenan Onel
Xiheng Hu,1 Mingfeng Chen,1 Yangle Li,1 Yin Wang,2 Sailan Wen,2 Fu Jun3
1Department of Urology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Human 410008, P.R. China; 2Department of Pathology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Human 410008, P.R. China; 3Laboratory of Oncology Research, Department of Oncology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Human 410008, P.R. China
Objective: A greater knowledge of the mechanisms of the pathogenesis of penile cancers may assist in the development of more tailored targeted therapy. Herein, we aimed to evaluate the expression of CEACAM19 in penile cancer and to explore its regulatory mechanisms.
Material and methods: This retrospective study enrolled 64 penile cancer patients who underwent penectomy between 2011 and 2015. CEACAM19 expression in tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry, which was analyzed in association with clinicopathological parameters. Kaplan–Meier analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between CEACAM19 expression and prognosis of patients with penile cancer. Cell Counting Kit-8 assay and clonogenic assay were used to evaluate the cell viability and tumorigenic potential of penile cancer cell line, respectively; wound healing assay and transwell invasion assay were conducted to evaluate the effect of CEACAM19 depletion on cell migration and invasion in penile cancer cells; CEACAM19 protein expression was analyzed by Western blotting. Culture supranatant matrix metalloproteinase 2/9 (MMP2/9) was detected by ELISA.
Results: CEACAM19 was differentially expressed in non-cancerous and penile cancer tissues. Over-expression of CEACAM19 was significantly associated with nodal and distant metastasis, and predicted unfavorable cancer-specific survival in penile cancer. Depletion of CEACAM19 expression suppressed cell proliferation, reduced colony formation, and attenuated cell migration and invasion in Penl1 cells. Furthermore, knockdown of CEACAM19 expression attenuated the levels of p-Smad2/3 and reduced secretion of MMP2/9 in Penl1 cells. The effects of CEACAM19 might result from its function in regulating the Smad2/3 activation, as inhibition on Smad2/3 activation suppressed cell migration and invasion and reduced MMP2/9 secretion in Penl1 cells.
Conclusion: Over-expression of CEACAM19 might serve as a potential prognostic biomarker for clinical management of penile cancer. Strategies targeting CEACAM19-regulated signaling pathways may have a therapeutic benefit in penile cancer.
Keywords: penile cancer, CEACAM19, prognosis, metastasis
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