A Scoping Review and Template Analysis of Manual-Based Complex Interventions in Dementia Care
Received 9 November 2019
Accepted for publication 23 January 2020
Published 13 March 2020 Volume 2020:15 Pages 363—371
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Richard Walker
Jens Anderson-Ingstrup, Hanne Mette Ridder
Department of Communication and Psychology, Doctoral Programme in Music Therapy, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark
Correspondence: Jens Anderson-Ingstrup Musikkens Hus, Musikkens Plads 1, Aalborg 9000, Denmark
Tel +45 60 15 48 67
Purpose: In dementia care, the complexity of psychosocial needs and contextual variables often demands nonpharmacological interventions of a complex nature. The purpose of this scoping review was to investigate (1) how manuals published in refereed journals explaining procedures of complex interventions in dementia care are structured and their content disseminated and (2) to provide recommendations for future manuals.
Methods: A systematic search was conducted using four databases (Embase, PsychInfo, CINAHL and Scopus) following PRISMA-ScR and PICo method. The results were analysed using template analysis aiming to describe the possibility of tailoring the intervention, degree of flexibility of the manual and dissemination elements used in the manual.
Results: A total of 882 records were identified, and 86 full-text articles were assessed. Nine articles containing manuals met the inclusion criteria. All of the included manuals allowed the user to tailor actions in the intervention to specific situations. Two-thirds of the manuals showed a medium degree of flexibility. The types of dissemination elements varied. All used written text, and some used various graphical organisers such as headlines and lists. None used illustrations or audio/video material.
Conclusion: Currently, only few manuals for complex interventions in the field of dementia are published in refereed journals, all disseminated as written text. For future manuals, we suggest considering the inclusion of illustrations and/or audio/video material to describe actions, to allow for tailoring of the intervention, and to maintain a medium or low degree of flexibility by structuring the content hierarchically in phases while providing the user with detailed description of what to do, and how to decide what to.
Keywords: manual-based intervention, dementia, complex intervention, nonpharmacological intervention, ecopsychosocial intervention
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