A panel containing PD-1, IL-2Rα, IL-10, and CA15-3 as a biomarker to discriminate breast cancer from benign breast disease
Received 21 December 2017
Accepted for publication 16 April 2018
Published 26 June 2018 Volume 2018:10 Pages 1749—1761
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Dr Kenan Onel
Chao Liu,1,2 Bing Sun,2 Bin Xu,1 Xiangying Meng,2 Lan Li,1 Yang Cong,2 Jiannan Liu,2 Qian Wang,2 Liang Xuan,2 Qibin Song,1 Shikai Wu2
1Cancer Center, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Affiliated Hospital of Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China
Introduction: Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), an immune checkpoint molecule, has recently been recognized as a predictive and prognostic biomarker in several malignant tumors, but its diagnostic value remains largely unknown. We aimed to investigate the differential diagnostic efficiency of PD-1 and other immune molecules and propose a panel of immune molecules combined with cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) to distinguish breast cancer (BC) from benign breast disease (BBD).
Patients and methods: Ninety-one eligible BC patients and 31 BBD patients were enrolled. Pretreatment peripheral blood was collected and tested for mRNA expression of PD-1, cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4, forkhead box P3, transforming growth factor beta, interleukin-10 (IL-10), IL-2 receptor alpha (IL-2Rα), and cluster of differentiation 28 by quantitative reverse transcription PCR.
Results: The diagnostic areas under curve (AUCs) of PD-1, IL-2Rα, and IL-10 for BC–BBD discrimination were 0.764, 0.758, and 0.743, respectively. The diagnostic efficiencies of these three parameters in distinguishing early-stage or advanced BC from BBD were consistent with a role in BC–BBD discrimination. A panel of PD-1 + IL-10 + IL-2Rα + CA15-3 showed the highest AUC (0.862), with a sensitivity of 0.933 and a specificity of 0.724, for BC–BBD discrimination. In addition, for early-stage BC discrimination, this panel also had the highest AUC (0.811), with a sensitivity of 0.933 and a specificity of 0.614, while for advanced BC discrimination, a panel of PD-1 + IL-10 + CA15-3 exhibited the highest AUC (0.896), with a sensitivity of 0.933 and a specificity of 0.783.
Conclusion: These data indicate that the panel containing PD-1, IL-2Rα, IL-10, and CA15-3 can effectively discriminate BC from BBD with a high efficiency. After further confirmation, it could be used to complement conventional imaging modalities, especially in discriminating early-stage BC from BBD.
Keywords: breast cancer, immune checkpoint, PD-1, CTLA-4, IL-2Rα, diagnosis, biomarker
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