A novel cross-correlation methodology for assessing biophysical responses associated with pain
Received 9 March 2018
Accepted for publication 3 July 2018
Published 5 October 2018 Volume 2018:11 Pages 2207—2219
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Dr Michael Schatman
John Sunwoo,1 Patjanaporn Chalacheva,1 Maha Khaleel,2 Payal Shah,2 Richard Sposto,3 Roberta M Kato,4 Jon Detterich,5 Lonnie K Zeltzer,6 John C Wood,1,5 Thomas D Coates,2 Michael CK Khoo1
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Hematology Section, Children’s Center for Cancer, Blood Disease and Bone Marrow Transplantation, Children’s Hospital Los Angeles, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 3Children’s Center for Cancer, Blood Disease and Bone Marrow Transplantation, Children’s Hospital Los Angeles, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 4Division of Pediatric Pulmonology, Children’s Hospital Los Angeles, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 5Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Children’s Hospital Los Angeles, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 6Pediatric Pain and Palliative Care Program, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Hematology-Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA
Purpose: The purpose of this work was to noninvasively detect and quantify microvascular blood flow changes in response to externally applied pain in humans. The responsiveness of the microvasculature to pain stimulation might serve as an objective biomarker in diseases associated with altered pain perception and dysregulated vascular functions. The availability of such a biomarker may be useful as a tool for predicting outcome and response to treatments, particularly in diseases like sickle cell anemia where clinical manifestations are directly linked to microvascular perfusion. We, therefore, developed a method to distinguish the blood flow response due to the test stimulus from the blood flow measurement that also includes concurrent flow changes from unknown origins.
Subjects and methods: We measured the microvascular blood flow response in 24 healthy subjects in response to a train of randomly spaced and scaled heat pulses on the anterior forearm. The fingertip microvascular perfusion was measured using laser Doppler flowmetry. The cross-correlation between the heat pulses and the blood flow response was computed and tested for significance against the null distribution obtained from the baseline recording using bootstrapping method.
Results: We estimated correlation coefficients, response time, response significance, and the magnitude of vasoreactivity from microvascular blood flow responses. Based on these pain response indices, we identified strong responders and subjects who did not show significant responses.
Conclusion: The cross-correlation of a random pattern of painful stimuli with directly measured microvascular flow can detect vasoconstriction responses in a noisy blood flow signal, determine the time between stimulus and response, and quantify the magnitude of this response. This approach provided an objective measurement of vascular response to pain that may be an inherent characteristic of individual human subjects, and may also be related to the severity of vascular disorders.
Keywords: objective quantification of pain, randomized heat pulse train, laser Doppler flowmetry, cross-correlation, bootstrap test, vasoreactivity
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