A niosome formulation modulates the Th1/Th2 bias immune response in mice and also provides protection against anthrax spore challenge
Authors Gogoi H, Mani R, Bhatnagar R
Received 3 October 2017
Accepted for publication 26 February 2018
Published 14 November 2018 Volume 2018:13 Pages 7427—7440
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Govarthanan Muthusamy
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas J Webster
Himanshu Gogoi, Rajesh Mani, Rakesh Bhatnagar
Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering, School of Biotechnology, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India
Introduction: In this study, we have investigated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a niosomal formulation encapsulating protective antigen (PA) and PA domain 4 (D4) of Bacillus anthracis.
Methods: Nonionic surfactant–based vesicles (NISV) + PA and NISV + D4 were prepared from span-60 and cholesterol by reverse-phase evaporation method and were evaluated for in vitro characteristics and immunological studies.
Results: Particle characterization using transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy analysis showed that the niosomal formulation was spherical in shape. The entrapment efficiency values were calculated to be 58.5% and 44.75% for PA and D4, respectively. Confocal microscopy and flow cytometry studies showed an enhanced uptake of antigen in THP1 macrophages by niosome as compared to antigen only. An in vitro release assay showed a burst release of antigen from niosome within 24 hours followed by a gradual release for 144 hours. Immunological studies showed that both PA- and D4-encapsulated niosome elicited a robust IgG titer. Antibody isotyping and cytokine profile showed that NISV + PA and NISV + D4 enhanced both Th1 and Th2 responses in mice, suggesting a mixed Th1/Th2 response. Both NISV + PA and NISV + D4 elicited high levels of anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 with low levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α, suggesting the anti-inflammatory property of niosome. Both the niosomal formulations were also able to confer protection against BA infection as compared to only PA and D4.
Conclusion: PA and D4 encapsulated NISV formulation could modulate both the Th1 and Th2 adaptive immune system and was found to be a better prophylactic against anthrax.
Keywords: Bacillus anthracis, niosome, protective antigen, protective antigen domain 4
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