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A fully integrated new paradigm for lithium’s mode of action – lithium utilizes latent cellular fail-safe mechanisms

Authors van Woerkom AE

Received 30 September 2016

Accepted for publication 3 December 2016

Published 31 January 2017 Volume 2017:13 Pages 275—302


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Roger Pinder

Arthur Ernst van Woerkom

South Birmingham and Solihull Mental Health NHS Foundation Trust, Longbridge CMHT, Rubery, Birmingham, UK

Abstract: It is proposed that lithium’s therapeutic effects occur indirectly by augmenting a cascade of protective “fail-safe” pathways pre-configured to activate in response to a dangerous low cell [Mg++] situation, eg, posttraumatic brain injury, alongside relative cell adenosine triphosphate depletion. Lithium activates cell protection, as it neatly mimics a lowered intracellular [Mg++] level.

Keywords: lithium, magnesium, GSK-3, traumatic brain injury, inositol, PRPP, valproate, carbamazepine, TRPM-7

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