VKORC1 variants as significant predictors of warfarin dose in Emiratis
Authors Al-Mahayri ZN, Al Jaibeji HS, Saab Y, Soliman K, Al-Gazali L, Patrinos GP, Ali BR
Received 13 September 2018
Accepted for publication 22 December 2018
Published 17 April 2019 Volume 2019:12 Pages 47—57
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Martin Bluth
Zeina N Al-Mahayri,1 Hayat S Al Jaibeji,2 Yolande Saab,3 Karem Soliman,4 Lihadh Al-Gazali,5 George P Patrinos,1,6–7 Bassam R Ali1,7
1Department of Pathology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates; 2Sharjah Institute for Medical Research, College of Medicine, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates; 3School of Pharmacy, Lebanese American University, Byblos, Lebanon; 4INR Clinic, Tawam Hospital, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates; 5Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates; 6Department of Pharmacy, School of Health Sciences, University of Patras, Patras, Greece; 7Zayed Center for Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates
Purpose: Variability in response to warfarin is one of the main obstacles challenging its use in clinical practice. Vitamin K epoxide reductase complex (VKORC) is the target enzyme of warfarin, and variations in the form of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in VKORC1, coding for this enzyme, are known to cause resistance to warfarin treatment. This study aimed to explore VKORC1 variants in Emirati patients receiving warfarin treatment and to correlate their genotypes at the studied SNPs to their maintenance warfarin dose.
Patients and methods: Sanger sequencing of the majority of the VKORC1 gene was applied to samples from 90 patients and 117 normal individuals recruited from Tawam Hospital, Al-Ain, UAE. Genotypes at the following variants were determined (rs9923231, rs188009042, rs61742245, rs17708472, rs9934438, rs8050894, rs2359612, rs7294). Statistical analysis was applied, including ANOVA, cross-tabulation, and multiple linear regression analysis, to determine the ability of nongenetic factors (age and gender) and genetic factors (VKORC1 genotypes) to explain variability in warfarin dose in patients.
Results: Different frequencies of minor alleles were detected in the selected SNPs. Significant variation among genotypes at six VKORC1 variants were identified (rs9923231, rs9934438, rs8050894, rs2359612, rs7294). The main predictors for warfarin dose were rs9923231, age, and rs61742245 with 50.7% of the average warfarin dose in our sample could be explained by a regression model built on these three factors.
Conclusion: This is the first report of the explanatory power of VKORC1 genotypes and nongenetic factors (age and gender) on warfarin dose among Emiratis. Also, this study highlighted the positive effect of considering rare pharmacogenomic variants on explaining warfarin dose variability.
Keywords: anticoagulants, pharmacogenomics, single nucleotide polymorphisms, United Arab Emirates