Back to Journals » International Journal of Nanomedicine » Volume 12

Vesicular melatonin efficiently downregulates sodium fluoride-induced rat hepato- and broncho- TNF-α, TGF-β expressions, and associated oxidative injury: a comparative study of liposomal and nanoencapsulated forms

Authors Sana S, Ghosh S, Das N, Sarkar S, Mandal AK

Received 7 October 2016

Accepted for publication 11 April 2017

Published 29 May 2017 Volume 2017:12 Pages 4059—4071


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 4

Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas Webster

Suvomoy Sana, Swarupa Ghosh, Nirmalendu Das, Sibani Sarkar, Ardhendu Kumar Mandal

Drug Development, Diagnostics and Biotechnology, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, West Bengal, India

Abstract: The importance of fluoride as a natural and industrial toxicant is recognized worldwide. We evaluated the regulating role and biological effect of vesicular (liposomal and nanoencapsulated) melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) for drug delivery and controlled release on the depletion of inflammatory mediators, as well as oxidative damage in sodium fluoride (NaF)-treated lungs and liver. Hepatic and bronchial damage was induced in Swiss albino rats with a single acute ingestion of NaF (48 mg/kg body weight, oral gavage). NaF exposure caused the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS); upregulation of TNF-α and TGF-β; decreased activities of antioxidant systems (glutathione, glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, catalase), succinate dehydrogenase, membrane microviscosity, and membrane potential; increased activity of lipid peroxidation and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydride oxidase; and increased hepatic and nephrite toxicities (P<0.001) compared to those in normal animals. Charge (–ve/+ve)-specific single liposomal (dicetyl phosphate/stearylamine) and nanoencapsulated melatonin (4.46 mg/kg body weight, intravenous) treatments (2 hours after NaF exposure) significantly (P<0.01/0.001) and maximally (P<0.001) inhibited all alterations developed in NaF-mediated oxidative injuries in rat liver (+ve) and lungs (–ve), demonstrating their strong free radical scavenging, antioxidant and antigenotoxic properties, and vesicular efficiencies of targeting. Overall, these results suggest that nanoencapsulated melatonin might be considered as a more powerful remedial therapy in comparison to liposomes, in terms of its efficacy in regulating NaF-intoxicated oxidative injury.

Keywords: sodium fluoride, reactive oxygen species, inflammatory mediators, oxidative injury, vesicular melatonin targeting

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]