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Update on current management of chronic kidney disease in patients with HIV infection

Authors Diana N, Naicker S

Received 28 May 2016

Accepted for publication 21 July 2016

Published 16 September 2016 Volume 2016:9 Pages 223—234

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJNRD.S93887

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Amy Norman

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Pravin Singhal


Nina E Diana, Saraladevi Naicker

Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa

Abstract:
The prevalence of HIV-associated chronic kidney disease (CKD) varies geographically and depends on the definition of CKD used, ranging from 4.7% to 38% globally. The incidence, however, has decreased with the use of effective combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). A wide variety of histological patterns are seen in HIV-associated kidney diseases that include glomerular and tubulointerstitial pathology. In resource-rich settings, there has been a plateau in the incidence of end-stage renal disease secondary to HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN). However, the prevalence of end-stage renal disease in HIV-positive individuals has risen, mainly due to increased longevity on cART. There is a disparity in the occurrence of HIVAN among HIV-positive individuals such that there is an 18- to 50-fold increased risk of developing kidney disease among HIV-positive individuals of African descent aged between 20 and 64 years and who have a poorer prognosis compared with their European descent counterparts, suggesting that genetic factors play a vital role. Other risk factors include male sex, low CD4 counts, and high viral load. Improvement in renal function has been observed after initiation of cART in patients with HIV-associated CKD. Treatment with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker is recommended, when clinically indicated in patients with confirmed or suspected HIVAN or clinically significant albuminuria. Other standard management approaches for patients with CKD are recommended. These include addressing other cardiovascular risk factors (appropriate use of statins and aspirin, weight loss, cessation of smoking), avoidance of nephrotoxins, and management of serum bicarbonate and uric acid, anemia, calcium, and phosphate abnormalities. Early diagnosis of kidney disease by screening of HIV-positive individuals for the presence of kidney disease is critical for the optimal management of these patients. Screening for the presence of kidney disease upon detection of HIV infection and annually thereafter in high-risk populations is recommended.

Keywords: chronic kidney disease, HIV infection, current management

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