Toxicity of Spathodea campanulata P Beauvois (Scrophulariales: Bignoniaceae) aqueous extracts against immature stages of Anopheles albimanus (Diptera: Culicidae) under laboratory conditions
Jose Luis Torres-Estrada1, Julio Cesar Velazquez Gonzalez1, Silvany M Rios Delgado1, María Guadalupe Vazquez-Martinez1, R Patricia Penilla-Navarro1, Americo D Rodriguez1
1Centro Regional de Investigación en Salud Pública, Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Colonia Centro, Tapachula, Chiapas, México
Purpose: To determine the effects of African tulip Spathodea campanulata aqueous extracts on every immature stage of Anopheles albimanus under laboratory conditions.
Methods: The extract was obtained making an incision on the apical part of prefloral bulbs, and two sets of dilutions with distilled water were prepared. The first set was used at 50%, 20%, 10%, 5%, and 2.5% concentrations in bioassays to test its effect on egg-hatching inhibition. The second set was used at 10%, 5%, 1%, 0.1%, and 0.01% to test toxicity on larvae and pupae. Also, residual efficacy and lethal time (LT) were estimated.
Results: The highest inhibition (87.5%) recorded for egg hatching was at a 50% concentration. Third and fourth instar larvae and pupae were the most susceptible to 10% and 5% of S. campanulata aqueous extracts, with 98.3%–100% mortality. The residual activity with 10% concentration persisted 7 days, with 100% mortality, and LT for 99% mortality (LT99) was 2.28 hours on third instar larvae, 1.7 hours on fourth instar larvae, and 2.25 hours on pupae.
Conclusion: S. campanulata extracts are promising as biolarvicides. Further toxicological and chromatographic studies are encouraged and needed.
Keywords: African tulip, botanical insecticides, malaria, mosquitoes
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