Toll-Like Receptor 3 as a Recurrence Risk Factor and a Potential Molecular Therapeutic Target in Colorectal Cancer
Received 2 March 2020
Accepted for publication 2 September 2020
Published 2 October 2020 Volume 2020:13 Pages 427—438
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Wing-Kin Syn
Tatsuya Yoshida,1 Takuya Miura,1 Tomoh Matsumiya,2 Hidemi Yoshida,2 Hajime Morohashi,1 Yoshiyuki Sakamoto,1 Akira Kurose,3 Tadaatsu Imaizumi,2 Kenichi Hakamada1
1Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8562, Japan; 2Department of Vascular Biology, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8562, Japan; 3Department of Anatomic Pathology, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8562, Japan
Correspondence: Kenichi Hakamada
Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, 5 Zaifu-cho, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8562, Japan
Tel +81 172 39 5079
Fax +81 172 39 5080
Purpose: Colorectal cancer (CRC) often recurs after curative resection. Identification of major risk factors for CRC recurrence is important for effective prevention and treatment. In this study, we examined the potential relationship between CRC and TLR3 as this remains unclear.
Patients and Methods: Correlations between TLR3 immunostaining and clinicopathological factors and prognosis were examined in 50 samples that were randomly extracted from 264 patients with CRC from January 2010 to December 2011. Chemokines induced by TLR3 agonist stimulation were also examined using TLR3-positive human CRC cell lines. Furthermore, the association between TLR3 and chemokine expression was assessed by analyzing the immunohistochemistry of surgical specimens.
Results: Of the 50 patients, 14 (28%) were TLR3-negative. In the comparison of clinicopathological factors between the TLR3-negative and -positive groups, there were more lymph node metastasis-positive cases in the TLR3-negative group, and this difference was significant. Furthermore, there was no difference in overall survival rates between the two groups, but the 5-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) was significantly lower in the TLR3-negative group (46.2%) than in the TLR3-positive group (78.1%). Analysis of 5-year RFS using factors thought to be related to recurrence identified a high tumor budding and a TLR3-negative status as independent risk factors for recurrence. TLR3 activation of CRC cell lines induced expression of C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), C-C motif chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5), and interleukin-8. The expressions of CCL2, CCL5, and IL-8 were observed in the TLR3-positive tumor cells of surgical specimens.
Conclusion: Non-expression of TLR3 in CRC cells was associated with lymph node metastasis and was an independent risk factor for recurrence. These results suggest that TLR3 may not only be used as a prognostic factor and a risk factor for recurrence, but further studies on the involvement of TLR3 with tumor growth may provide new therapeutic strategies.
Keywords: colorectal cancer, toll-like receptor 3, recurrence, CCL2, CCL5, IL-8
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