The Severity of Changes in Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Adults Over a Five-Year Interval
Received 27 June 2020
Accepted for publication 29 August 2020
Published 19 October 2020 Volume 2020:15 Pages 1979—1990
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Richard Walker
Anita Liput-Sikora,1 Anna Maria Cybulska,2 Wiesława Fabian,1 Marzanna Stanisławska,2 Magdalena Sylwia Kamińska,3 Elżbieta Grochans,2 Anna Jurczak4
1Primary Care Center (NZOZ Przychodnia Medycyny Rodzinnej SJ), Szczecin 71-521, Poland; 2Department of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, Szczecin 71-210, Poland; 3Subdepartment of Long-Term Care, Department of Social Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, Szczecin 71-210, Poland; 4Department of Specialized Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, Szczecin 71-210, Poland
Correspondence: Anna Maria Cybulska
Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, Faculty of Health Sciences, Żołnierska 48, Szczecin 71-210, Poland
Tel +48 91 48 00 910
Fax +48 91 48 00 905
Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the severity of changes in cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, overweight and obesity, carbohydrate metabolism disorders, burdened family history) and to assess the risk of a cardiovascular incident according to the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) algorithm in the same group of patients over a five-year interval.
Patients and Methods: The research method was analysis of medical records of patients from the area of West Pomeranian Province, Poland, included in the Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Program of the National Health Fund five years after the first examination (2012/2013 vs 2017/2018). We collected data on changes in the levels of selected cardiovascular risk factors over five years and calculated the SCORE values.
Results: In the second measurement (after five years), the odds of obesity were about 2.5 times higher. The repeated BMI measurement showed that after five years more respondents were classified as overweight and obese compared with the first measurement (p = 0.000; η2 = 0.056). The repeated SCORE measurement indicated that after five years the SCORE values significantly increased compared with the first measurement (p = 0.000; η2 = 0.588). Statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) were also found between the first and the second measurements of arm circumference, waist circumference, BMI, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, and triglycerides. The risk of visceral obesity was statistically significantly higher for men than for women (RHM = 1.47).
Conclusion: In the group of patients examined twice over five years, the incidence of obesity, including abdominal obesity, significantly increased. Furthermore, five years after the last examination, the risk of a cardiovascular incident significantly increased. The participants had higher values of such parameters as: arm circumference, waist circumference, BMI, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, and triglycerides.
Keywords: cardiovascular disease, risk factors, prevention, SCORE
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