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The relationship between kidney stones and dietary habits

Authors Al-Kazwini AT, Al-Arif MS, Abu-Mweis SS, Al-Hammouri TF

Received 9 April 2019

Accepted for publication 7 June 2019

Published 25 July 2019 Volume 2019:11 Pages 201—214

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/RRU.S211483

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Ms Justinn Cochran

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Jan Colli


This article has been Retracted

 
Akeel T Al-Kazwini,1 Maan S Al-Arif,2 Suhad S Abu-Mweis,3 Tarek F Al-Hammouri4

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Applied Medical Sciences, German Jordanian University, Amman 11180, Jordan; 2Department of Dentistry, Al-Byan University, Baghdad, Iraq; 3Department of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, The Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan; 4Royal Berkshire Hospital, NHS Foundation Trust, Reading, England, UK

Background: Kidney stones are considered a serious disease, due to the great discomfort that they can cause and may even lead to renal failure. Dietary habits could be the reason behind stone formation in kidneys.
Methods: Twelve kidney stone samples were collected and analyzed together with typical foodstuffs frequently consumed in the Koya area using the x-ray fluorescent technique.
Results: All the analyzed stones were found to be calcium-based. The results show that elements such as Ca, Zr, S and Cl can be regarded as the core elements for the formation of kidney stones in Koya city in north Iraq.
Conclusion: Many dietary foods and drink frequently consumed by the people in Koya city were observed to contain the core elements. However, more studies are needed to demonstrate if dietary intake may be the main source for kidney stone formation.

Keywords: XRF, kidney stone, core elements, dietary

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