The relationship between Graves’ ophthalmopathy and dry eye syndrome
Authors Selter J, Gire A, Sikder S
Received 5 November 2014
Accepted for publication 19 November 2014
Published 31 December 2014 Volume 2015:9 Pages 57—62
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser
Jessica H Selter,1 Anisa I Gire,2 Shameema Sikder2
1Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, 2Wilmer Ophthalmological Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
Background: A complex relationship between Graves’ ophthalmopathy (GO) and dry eye syndrome exists. New research brings more insight into the association between these two diseases.
Methods: A review of the literature was conducted using the query terms “Graves’ Ophthalmopathy”, “Thyroid Eye Disease”, and “Dry Eye” in MedLine (PubMed) and Scopus. A total of 55 papers were reviewed. Case reports were excluded.
Conclusion: This review paper shows the close relationship between dry eye syndrome and GO. The underlying mechanisms behind their association suggest mechanical impairment of orbital muscles and immune-mediated lacrimal gland dysfunction as the causes of dry eye in GO patients. However, there are a variety of treatment options available for patients with GO with signs of dry eye, which help combat this issue.
Keywords: Graves’ ophthalmopathy, dry eye, thyroid eye disease, ocular inflammation
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