The effects of exercise and diet program in overweight people – Nordic walking versus walking
Received 30 May 2019
Accepted for publication 31 July 2019
Published 28 August 2019 Volume 2019:14 Pages 1555—1565
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Richard Walker
Valentina Muollo,1,2 Andrea P Rossi,3 Chiara Milanese,1 Elena Masciocchi,3 Miriam Taylor,3 Mauro Zamboni,3 Raffaela Rosa,1 Federico Schena,1,2 Barbara Pellegrini1,2
1Department of Neurosciences, Biomedicine, and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Verona, Italy; 2CeRiSM, Sport Mountain and Health Research Centre, University of Verona, Rovereto, Italy; 3Department of Medicine, Section of Geriatrics, University of Verona Healthy Aging Center, Verona, Italy
Correspondence: Valentina Muollo
Department of Neurosciences, Biomedicine, and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Verona, Italy
Tel +39 045 842 5122
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Purpose: Nordic walking (NW) has been recommended as a form of exercise for clinical populations. Despite intervention programs designed to face a clinical status may last several months, no longitudinal studies have compared the effect of NW to another usual form of exercise, like walking (W). We evaluated the effects of diet combined with a long-supervised NW versus W training on body composition, aerobic capacity and strength in overweight adults.
Patients and methods: Thirty-eight participants, randomized into a NW (n=19, 66±7 years, body mass index (BMI) 33±5)) and a W (n=19, 66±8 years, BMI 32±5) group, followed a diet and a supervised training routine 3 times/week for 6 months. The variables assessed at baseline, after 3 and 6 months were: anthropometric indexes (ie, BMI and waist circumference (WC)), body composition, aerobic capacity (oxygen consumption (VO2peak), peak power output (PPO), 6-min walking test (6MWT)) and strength (maximal voluntary contraction of biceps brachialis (MVCBB) and quadriceps femoris (MVCQF), chair stand and arm curl (AC)).
Results: After 6 months both NW and W group decreased significantly BMI (6% and 4%, respectively) and WC (8% and 4%, respectively), but only the NW group reduced (P<0.05) total body fat (8%), android fat (14%) and leg fat (9%). After 6 months, PPO increased (P<0.05) in both groups, but VO2peak improved (P<0.05) only in the NW group (8%). After 6 months, 6MWT increased (P<0.001) in both groups and only the NW group improved (P<0.05) in MVCBB (14%), MVCQF (17%) and AC (35%).
Conclusion: Our results suggest that NW can give in some relevant health parameters, greater and faster benefits than W. Thus, NW can be a primary tool to counteract the obesity and overweight state in middle-aged adults.
Keywords: longitudinal study, walking with poles, diet, strength, body composition, weight loss
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