The effects of an empowering self-management model on self-efficacy and sense of coherence among retired elderly with chronic diseases: a randomized controlled trial
Authors Hourzad A, Pouladi S, Ostovar A, Ravanipour M
Received 17 August 2018
Accepted for publication 7 October 2018
Published 1 November 2018 Volume 2018:13 Pages 2215—2224
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Richard Walker
Azam Hourzad,1 Shahnaz Pouladi,2 Afshin Ostovar,3 Maryam Ravanipour4
1Department of Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran; 2Department of Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran; 3Osteoporosis Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 4Department of Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery; and The Persian Gulf Tropical Medicine Research Center, The Persian Gulf Biomedical Sciences Research Institute, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran
Background: Being elderly and retired are related phenomena that overlap in a time symmetry. The present study aimed to assess the effect of an empowering self-management model on the self-efficacy and sense of coherence (SOC) in retired elderly with chronic diseases.
Methods: A randomized controlled trial that included 60 elderly people was carried out in Bushehr (Iran) in 2016. The participants were randomly assigned to either a control group or an intervention group. Based on an empowering self-management model, the intervention group participated in a five-stage plan: 1) self-awareness of changes and understanding their personal level of performance and expectations; 2) optimal goal setting; 3) planning; 4) adjusting physical, psychological, and social structures; and 5) evaluation. Self-efficacy and SOC were measured using the questionnaires developed by Sherer and Antonovsky, respectively, before and after the intervention. The results of the observed differences between the groups were subsequently compared. Data were presented as mean±SD.
Results: The mean change of the self-efficacy score in the intervention and control groups was 9.48±5.32 and 1.68± 6.04, respectively, (t=5.20, P<0.001). The mean change of the SOC score in the intervention and control groups was 24.17±12.05 and 0.10±13.42, respectively, (t=7.18, P<0.001).
Conclusion: The applied empowering self-management model led to an improved self-efficacy and SOC among the retired elderly with chronic diseases. This model can be used to empower the elderly to achieve comprehensibility, manageability, and meaningfulness in their lives.
Keywords: empowerment, chronic diseases, retirement, self-efficacy, sense of coherence, aging
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