The Effect of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) on Depression, Cognition, and Immunity in Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Pilot Feasibility Study
Received 11 February 2020
Accepted for publication 1 July 2020
Published 12 August 2020 Volume 2020:15 Pages 1365—1381
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Dr Richard Walker
Rafał Marciniak,1,2 Rastislav Šumec,1,3,4 Martin Vyhnálek,1 Kamila Bendíčková,5 Petra Lázničková,5,6 Giancarlo Forte,5 Andrej Jeleník,1 Veronika Římalová,1,7 Jan Frič,5 Jakub Hort,1 Kateřina Sheardová1,3
1International Clinical Research Center (ICRC), St. Anne’s University Hospital, Brno, Czech Republic; 2Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Studies, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic; 3First Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University and St. Anne’s University Hospital, Brno, Czech Republic; 4Department of Psychology and Psychosomatics, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic; 5Center of Translational Medicine, International Clinical Research Center (ICRC), St. Anne’s University Hospital, Brno, Czech Republic; 6Department of Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic; 7Department of Mathematical Analysis and Applications of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Palacky University Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic
Correspondence: Rafał Marciniak
International Clinical Research Center (ICRC), St. Anne’s University Hospital, Pekařská 53, Brno 656 91, Czech Republic
Tel +420 736432470
Background: Mindfulness-based programs have shown a promising effect on several health factors associated with increased risk of dementia and the conversion from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to dementia such as depression, stress, cognitive decline, immune system and brain structural and functional changes. Studies on mindfulness in MCI subjects are sparse and frequently lack control intervention groups.
Objective: To determine the feasibility and the effect of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) practice on depression, cognition and immunity in MCI compared to cognitive training.
Methods: Twenty-eight MCI subjects were randomly assigned to two groups. MBSR group underwent 8-week MBSR program. Control group underwent 8-week cognitive training. Their cognitive and immunological profiles and level of depressive symptoms were examined at baseline, after each 8-week intervention (visit 2, V2) and six months after each intervention (visit 3, V3). MBSR participants completed feasibility questionnaire at V2.
Results: Twenty MCI patients completed the study (MBSR group n=12, control group n=8). MBSR group showed significant reduction in depressive symptoms at both V2 (p=0.03) and V3 (p=0.0461) compared to the baseline. There was a minimal effect on cognition – a group comparison analysis showed better psychomotor speed in the MBSR group compared to the control group at V2 (p=0.0493) but not at V3. There was a detectable change in immunological profiles in both groups, more pronounced in the MBSR group. Participants checked only positive/neutral answers concerning the attractivity/length of MBSR intervention. More severe cognitive decline (PVLT≤ 36) was associated with the lower adherence to home practice.
Conclusion: MBSR is well-accepted potentially promising intervention with positive effect on cognition, depressive symptoms and immunological profile.
Keywords: cognition, depression, anxiety, MCI, neurodegeneration, monocyte activation
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