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Targeting Netrin-1 and -4 as a Novel Diagnostic Parameter and Treatment Option for Diabetic Retinopathy

Authors Zewdie KA, Ayza MA, Amare Tesfaye B, Yimer EM

Received 13 April 2020

Accepted for publication 16 June 2020

Published 25 June 2020 Volume 2020:14 Pages 1741—1747


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser

Kaleab Alemayehu Zewdie,1 Muluken Altaye Ayza,1 Bekalu Amare Tesfaye,1 Ebrahim M Yimer2

1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia; 2Department of Pharmacy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Wollo University, Dessie, Ethiopia

Correspondence: Kaleab Alemayehu Zewdie
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Mekelle University, PO Box 1871, Mekelle, Ethiopia
Tel +251921546562

Abstract: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a retinal vascular disorder associated with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). It is characterized by specific loss of pericytes, which leads to an augmented blood vessel permeability, and development of new blood vessels (retinal neovascularization). Moreover, stiffening of eye membrane, inflammation, and apoptosis of endothelial cells also lead to damage of the blood–retinal barrier and blindness in most cases unless it’s detected and managed early. Hence, this review was intended to assess the potential roles of Netrin-1 and -4 as new/alternative biomarkers and therapeutic options for DR. Netrin-1 and -4 have been the most known ligands and are well known for their role in neural guidance. DR has both neural and vascular components; therefore, biomarkers used for both neural and vascular retinal tissues are potentially important. According to different experimental and clinical studies, as compared to the normal groups, there was a significant increment in both retinal Netrin-1 and -4 mRNA and protein levels in the retinopathy groups. In addition, exogenous supplementation of these proteins is also used as a therapeutic agent for DR.

Keywords: diabetic retinopathy, Netrin-1, Netrin-4, biomarker, diabetes mellitus

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