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Spontaneous peritonitis in critically ill cirrhotic patients: a diagnostic algorithm for clinicians and future perspectives

Authors Fiore M, Maraolo AE, Leone S, Gentile I, Cuomo A, Schiavone V, Bimonte S, Pace MC, Cascella M

Received 18 June 2017

Accepted for publication 9 August 2017

Published 16 October 2017 Volume 2017:13 Pages 1409—1414

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/TCRM.S144262

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Hoa Le

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Professor Garry Walsh


Marco Fiore,1 Alberto Enrico Maraolo,2 Sebastiano Leone,3 Ivan Gentile,2 Arturo Cuomo,4 Vincenzo Schiavone,5 Sabrina Bimonte,4 Maria Caterina Pace,1 Marco Cascella4

1Department of Anaesthesiological, Surgical and Emergency Sciences, University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, Naples, Italy; 2Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Section of Infectious Diseases, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy; 3Division of Infectious Diseases, “San Giuseppe Moscati” Hospital, Avellino, Italy; 4Division of Anesthesia, Department of Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, Istituto Nazionale Tumori – IRCCS – Fondazione G. Pascale, Naples, Italy; 5Division of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Hospital “Pineta Grande”, Castel Volturno, Italy

Abstract: Spontaneous peritonitis (SP) is the most common infection among decompensated end-stage liver disease patients. SP is the infection of ascitic fluid (neutrophil ascitic count ≥250/mL) without an alternative focus of abdominal infection. According to the causative agent, clinicians can make the diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis or spontaneous fungal peritonitis. The mortality rate is very high, ranging from one-fifth of the patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis to four-fifths of the patients with spontaneous fungal peritonitis. An immediate and accurate diagnosis can improve the outcome in end-stage liver disease patients. The aim of this work is to provide physicians with a practical diagnostic guidance for SP diagnosis according to current evidence, in order to improve the management of cirrhotic patients with infected ascitic fluid.

Keywords: cirrhosis, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, spontaneous fungal peritonitis, bacteriascites, fungal ascites

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