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Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in cancer therapy: a nano-based approach

Authors Mahmoodi Chalbatani G, Dana H, Gharagouzloo E, Grijalvo S, Eritja R, Logsdon CD, Memari F, Miri SR, Rad MR, Marmari V

Received 4 January 2019

Accepted for publication 23 March 2019

Published 2 May 2019 Volume 2019:14 Pages 3111—3128


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Thomas J. Webster

Ghanbar Mahmoodi Chalbatani,1,* Hassan Dana,1,2,* Elahe Gharagouzloo,1 Santiago Grijalvo,3,4 Ramon Eritja,3,4 Craig D Logsdon,5,6 Fereidoon Memari,1 Seyed Rouhollah Miri,1 Mahdi Rezvani Rad,7 Vahid Marmari2

1Cancer Research Center, Cancer Institute of Iran, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran; 2Department of Biology, Damghan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damghan, Iran; 3Institute of Advanced Chemistry of Catalonia (IQAC-CSIC), Barcelona 08034, Spain; 4Biomedical Research Networking Center in Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER BBN), Madrid, Spain; 5Department of Cancer Biology, University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA; 6Department of GI Medical Oncology, University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA; 7Department of Biology, Zabol University, Zabol, Iran

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Abstract: Cancer is one of the most complex diseases that has resulted in multiple genetic disorders and cellular abnormalities. Globally, cancer is the most common health concern disease that is affecting human beings. Great efforts have been made over the past decades in biology with the aim of searching novel and more efficient tools in therapy. Thus, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have been considered one of the most noteworthy developments which are able to regulate gene expression following a process known as RNA interference (RNAi). RNAi is a post-transcriptional mechanism that involves the inhibition of gene expression through promoting cleavage on a specific area of a target messenger RNA (mRNA). This technology has shown promising therapeutic results for a good number of diseases, especially in cancer. However, siRNA therapeutics have to face important drawbacks in therapy including stability and successful siRNA delivery in vivo. In this regard, the development of effective siRNA delivery systems has helped addressing these issues by opening novel therapeutic windows which have allowed to build up important advances in Nanomedicine. In this review, we discuss the progress of siRNA therapy as well as its medical application via nanoparticle-mediated delivery for cancer treatment.

Keywords: delivery strategies, lipoplexes, nanovectors, polymeric nanoparticles, siRNA

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