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Size- and shape-dependent clinical and mycological efficacy of silver nanoparticles on dandruff

Authors Anwar M, Yadav D, Jain S, Kapoor S, Rastogi S, Arora I, Samim M

Received 17 April 2015

Accepted for publication 13 June 2015

Published 6 January 2016 Volume 2016:11 Pages 147—161

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S86828

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas Webster


Mohammad F Anwar,1 Deepak Yadav,2 Swati Jain,3 Sumeet Kapoor,4 Shweta Rastogi,5 Indu Arora,6 Mohammed Samim1

1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, 2Faculty of Medicine, Jamia Hamdard University, New Delhi, 3Amity Institute of Nanotechnology, Amity University, Noida, Uttar Pradesh, 4Centre for Biomedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, 5Department of Chemistry, Hans Raj College, 6Department of Biomedical Sciences, Rajguru College of Applied Sciences for Women, University of Delhi, Delhi, India

Abstract: Dandruff is a prominent scalp problem caused by the growth of fungus Malassezia furfur, potentially cascading into dermal inflammation, itching, and tissue damage. The present work outlines a detailed analysis of the treatment of scalp infection using silver nanomaterials (Ag NMs), and focuses on biocidal activity owing to manipulation of size, shape, and structure. Monodisperse silver spherical nanoparticles (NPs) and nanorods (NRs) were synthesized by chemical routes that were characterized using analytical and spectroscopic techniques. Ag NMs demonstrated enhanced biocidal tendencies compared to market available drugs, itracanozole and ketoconazole, showing greater zones of inhibition. The obtained 20 nm and 50 nm spherical-shaped NPs and 50 nm NRs showed concentration-, size-, and shape-dependent antifungal activity, with 20 nm spherical-shaped NPs exhibiting excellent potency. Minimum inhibitory concentration for 20 nm was lowest at 0.2 mg/mL in comparison to 0.3 mg/mL for NRs. Primary irritation index was 0.33 and 0.16 for 20 nm and 50 nm spherical-shaped NPs, respectively, while 50 nm rod-shaped NMs exhibited negligible redness. An in vivo model for M. furfur infection was generated by passing fungi subcutaneously in rats’ skin. Again, 20 nm particles showed best normalization of skin after 10 days on regular dosing, in comparison with bigger and rod-shaped particles. The statistical clinical score was highest for Ag nanorods, followed by 50 nm Ag NPs-treated animals. It was observed that 20 nm spherical particles exhibited the lowest score (0) compared with others as well as with antifungal drugs. Biochemical analysis performed by checking antioxidant enzymatic activities indicated tissue repair and normalization of enzymes and protein concentration by Ag NPs.

Keywords: Malassezia furfur, nanorods, in vivo analysis, Wistar rat model

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