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Role of poly(ε-caprolactone) lipid-core nanocapsules on melanoma–neutrophil crosstalk

Authors Drewes CC, Alves ACS, Hebeda CB, Copetti I, Sandri S, Uchiyama MK, Araki K, Guterres SS, Pohlmann, AR, Farsky SH

Received 27 April 2017

Accepted for publication 15 July 2017

Published 27 September 2017 Volume 2017:12 Pages 7153—7163


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas Webster

Carine C Drewes,1 Aline de CS Alves,2,3 Cristina B Hebeda,1 Isabela Copetti,2,3 Silvana Sandri,1 Mayara K Uchiyama,4 Koiti Araki,4 Silvia S Guterres,2 Adriana R Pohlmann,2,3 Sandra H Farsky1

1Department of Clinical and Toxicological Analyses, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, 2Postgraduate Program in Pharmaceutical Sciences, 3Department of Organic Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, 4Department of Fundamental Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

Abstract: Metastatic melanoma is an aggressive cancer with increasing incidence and limited therapies in advanced stages. Systemic neutrophilia or abundant neutrophils in the tumor contribute toward its worst prognosis, and the interplay of cancer and the immune system has been shown in tumor development and metastasis. We recently showed the in vivo efficacy of poly(ε-caprolactone) lipid-core nanocapsule (LNC) or LNC loaded with acetyleugenol (AcE-LNC) to treat B16F10-induced melanoma in mice. In this study, we investigated whether LNC or AcE-LNC toxicity could involve modifications on crosstalk of melanoma cells and neutrophils. Therefore, melanoma cells (B16F10) were pretreated with vehicle, LNC, AcE or AcE-LNC for 24 h, washed and, further, cocultured for 18 h with peritoneal neutrophils obtained from C57Bl/6 mice. Melanoma cells were able to internalize the LNC or AcE-LNC after 2 h of incubation. LNC or AcE-LNC pretreatments did not cause melanoma cells death, but led melanoma cells to be more susceptible to death in serum deprivation or hypoxia or in the presence of neutrophils. Interestingly, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which causes cell death, was increased by neutrophils in the presence of LNC- and AcE-LNC-pretreated melanoma cells. LNC or AcE-LNC treatments reduced the concentration of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) in the supernatant of melanoma cells, a known factor secreted by cancer cells to induce pro-tumoral actions of neutrophils in the tumor microenvironment. In addition, we found reduced levels of pro-tumoral chemical mediators VEGF, arginase-1, interleukin-10 (IL-10) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in the supernatant of LNC or AcE-LNC-pretreated melanoma cells and cocultured with neutrophils. Overall, our data show that the uptake of LNC or AcE-LNC by melanoma cells affects intracellular mechanisms leading to more susceptibility to death and also signals higher neutrophil antitumoral activity.

Keywords: hypoxia, serum deprivation, apoptosis, coculture, tumor microenvironment, LNC, acetyleugenol, intravital microscopy

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