Respiratory training as strategy to prevent cognitive decline in aging: a randomized controlled trial
Authors Ferreira L, Tanaka K, Santos-Galduróz RF, Fernandez Galduróz JC
Received 19 December 2014
Accepted for publication 29 January 2015
Published 20 March 2015 Volume 2015:10 Pages 593—603
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Dr Richard Walker
Leandro Ferreira,1 Kátia Tanaka,1 Ruth Ferreira Santos-Galduróz,2,3 José Carlos Fernandes Galduróz1
1Department of Psychobiology, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; 2Center of Mathematics, Computation and Cognition, Universidade Federal do ABC, São André, SP, Brazil; 3Institute of Biosciences, Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho, Rio Claro, SP, Brazil
Background: Inadequate oxygenation may cause lesions and brain atrophy during aging. Studies show a positive association between pulmonary function and the cognitive performance of individuals from middle age on.
Objective: To investigate the effect of aerobic physical exercises and respiratory training on the blood oxygenation, pulmonary functions, and cognition of the elderly.
Design: This was a randomized and controlled trial with three parallel groups. A total of 195 community-dwelling elderly were assessed for eligibility; only n=102 were included and allocated into the three groups, but after 6 months, n=68 were analyzed in the final sample. Participants were randomized into a social interaction group (the control group), an aerobic exercise group (the “walking” group), or a respiratory training group (the “breathing” group). The main outcome measures were the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Wechsler Memory Scale, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, respiratory muscular strength, cirtometry (thoracic–abdominal circumference); oxygen saturation in arterial blood (SpO2), and hemogram.
Results: No differences were observed for any of the blood parameters. Aerobic exercise and respiratory training were effective in improving the pulmonary parameters. Better cognitive performance was observed for the breathing group as regards abstraction and mental flexibility. The walking group remained stable in the cognitive performance of most of the tests, except attention. The control group presented worst performance in mental manipulation of information, abstraction, mental flexibility, and attention.
Conclusion: Our results showed that both the walking and breathing groups presented improvement of pulmonary function. However, only the breathing group showed improved cognitive function (abstraction, mental flexibility). The improvement in cognitive functions cannot be explained by blood parameters, such as SpO2, erythrocytes, hemoglobin, and hematocrit.
Keywords: breathing exercises, cognition, exercise
This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.Download Article [PDF] View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]