Relationship between resistant hypertension and arterial stiffness assessed by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity in the older patient
Authors Chung C, Cheng H, Chang J, Lin Y, Hsiao J, Chang S, Hsu J, Lin M
Received 29 May 2014
Accepted for publication 25 June 2014
Published 5 September 2014 Volume 2014:9 Pages 1495—1502
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 4
Chang-Min Chung,1,2 Hui-Wen Cheng,2 Jung-Jung Chang,2 Yu-Sheng Lin,2 Ju-Feng Hsiao,2 Shih-Tai Chang,1 Jen-Te Hsu2,3
1School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, 2Division of Cardiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chiayi, 3Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan County, Taiwan
Background: Resistant hypertension (RH) is a common clinical condition associated with increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in older patients. Several factors and conditions interfering with blood pressure (BP) control, such as excess sodium intake, obesity, diabetes, older age, kidney disease, and certain identifiable causes of hypertension are common in patients resistant to antihypertensive treatment. Arterial stiffness, measured by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), is increasingly recognized as an important prognostic index and potential therapeutic target in hypertensive patients. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association between RH and arterial stiffness.
Methods: This study included 1,620 patients aged ≥65 years who were referred or self-referred to the outpatient hypertension unit located at a single cardiovascular center. They were separated into normotensive, controlled BP, and resistant hypertension groups. Home BP, blood laboratory parameters, echocardiographic studies and baPWV all were measured.
Results: The likelihood of diabetes mellitus was significantly greater in the RH group than in the group with controlled BP (odds ratio 2.114, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.194–3.744, P=0.010). Systolic BP was correlated in the RH group significantly more than in the group with controlled BP (odds ratio 1.032, 95% CI 1.012–1.053, P=0.001). baPWV (odds ratio 1.084, 95% CI 1.016–1.156, P=0.015) was significantly correlated with the presence of RH. The other factors were negatively correlated with the existence of RH.
Conclusion: In patients aged ≥65 years, the patients with RH have elevated vascular stiffness more than the well controlled hypertension group. baPWV increased with arterial stiffness and was correlated with BP levels. Strict BP control is necessary to prevent severe functional and structural vascular changes in the course of hypertensive disease.
Keywords: arterial stiffness, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity, resistant hypertension
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