Recent developments in age-related macular degeneration: a review
Authors Al-Zamil WM, Yassin SA
Received 8 June 2017
Accepted for publication 27 July 2017
Published 22 August 2017 Volume 2017:12 Pages 1313—1330
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Dr Richard Walker
Waseem M Al-Zamil, Sanaa A Yassin
Department of Ophthalmology, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia
Background: Visual impairment in elderly people is a considerable health problem that significantly affects quality of life of millions worldwide. The magnitude of this issue is becoming more evident with an aging population and an increasing number of older individuals.
Objective: The objective of this article was to review the clinical and pathological aspects of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diagnostic tools, and therapeutic modalities presently available or underway for both atrophic and wet forms of the disease.
Methods: An online review of the PubMed database was performed, searching for the key words. The search was limited to articles published since 1980 to date.
Results: Several risk factors have been linked to AMD, such as age (>60 years), lifestyle (smoking and diet), and family history. Although the pathogenesis of AMD remains unclear, genetic factors have been implicated in the condition. Treatment for atrophic AMD is mainly close observation, coupled with nutritional supplements such as zinc and antioxidants, whereas treatment of wet AMD is based on targeting choroidal neovascular membranes.
Conclusion: Identification of modifiable risk factors would improve the possibilities of preventing the progression of AMD. The role of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agents has transformed the therapeutic approach of the potentially blinding disease “wet AMD” into a more favorable outcome.
Keywords: age-related macular degeneration, anti-VEGF, risk factors, treatment
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