Psychometric evaluation of the Arabic version of the nomophobia questionnaire: confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis – implications from a pilot study in Kuwait among university students
Received 2 April 2018
Accepted for publication 30 August 2018
Published 16 October 2018 Volume 2018:11 Pages 471—482
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Amy Norman
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Professor Igor Elman
Eisa M Al-Balhan,1 Hicham Khabbache,2 Ali Watfa,3 Tania Simona Re,4 Riccardo Zerbetto,5 Nicola Luigi Bragazzi4,6
1Department of Educational Psychology, College of Education, Kuwait University, Kuwait City, Kuwait; 2Faculty of Literature and Humanistic Studies, Sais, Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, Fez, Morocco; 3Faculty of Education, Kuwait University, Kuwait City, Kuwait; 4UNESCO Chair “Health Anthropology Biosphere and Healing Systems”, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy; 5GESTALT Study Center (CSTG), Milano, Italy; 6Department of Health Sciences (DISSAL), Postgraduate School of Public Health, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy
Background: In the past decades, thanks to the widespread use of the new information and communication technologies, nomophobia has emerged as a contemporary psychological disorder. More in detail, it has been defined as the modern fear of feeling disconnected, being out of mobile phone contact, and being unable to access information and/or communicate with others. Few authors have used an Arabic version of the Nomophobia Questionnaire, even though its psychometric properties are not well known and have been poorly investigated from a formal rigorous standpoint.
Materials and methods: Our research objective was to develop and validate the Arabic version, administering it to a sample of adolescents and young adults in a country characterized by a high mobile network coverage. A total of 512 subjects (aged 21.62±4.33 years, median 20 years), equally distributed between males and females, and based in Kuwait, volunteered to take part in the study.
Results: The confirmatory factor analysis did not show a completely satisfactory fitting with the original factor structure. The exploratory factor analysis showed that four factors had 57.24% variance. Overall Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.879. However, the coefficient increased from 0.645 to 0.849 with respect to the original factor structure. Scores (and mean scores) were 4.25±1.59 (21.23±7.95), 2.95±1.33 (17.68±7.97), 4.48±1.78 (8.96±3.56), and 4.98±1.52 (34.84±10.67) for factors I, II, III, and IV, respectively, whereas the overall score (and mean overall score) was 4.14±1.13 (82.71±22.68).
Conclusion: In our sample, no subject (0.0%) was without nomophobia, with 92 (18.0%) and 288 individuals (56.2%) reporting mild and moderate nomophobia levels, respectively. Approximately a quarter of the recruited sample (132 subjects, 25.8%) had severe nomophobia level.
Keywords: Nomophobia, questionnaire, psychometric properties, Arabic language, confirmatory factor analysis, exploratory factor analysis
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