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Probing the nanoadhesion of Streptococcus sanguinis to titanium implant surfaces by atomic force microscopy

Authors Aguayo S, Donos N, Spratt D, Bozec L

Received 18 November 2015

Accepted for publication 23 December 2015

Published 6 April 2016 Volume 2016:11 Pages 1443—1450


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas Webster

Sebastian Aguayo,1 Nikolaos Donos,2 Dave Spratt,3 Laurent Bozec1

1Department of Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, 2Periodontology Unit, 3Division of Microbial Diseases, UCL Eastman Dental Institute, University College London, London, UK

Abstract: As titanium (Ti) continues to be utilized in great extent for the fabrication of artificial implants, it is important to understand the crucial bacterium–Ti interaction occurring during the initial phases of biofilm formation. By employing a single-cell force spectroscopy technique, the nanoadhesive interactions between the early-colonizing Streptococcus sanguinis and a clinically analogous smooth Ti substrate were explored. Mean adhesion forces between S. sanguinis and Ti were found to be 0.32±0.00, 1.07±0.06, and 4.85±0.56 nN for 0, 1, and 60 seconds contact times, respectively; while adhesion work values were reported at 19.28±2.38, 104.60±7.02, and 1,317.26±197.69 aJ for 0, 1, and 60 seconds, respectively. At 60 seconds surface delays, minor-rupture events were modeled with the worm-like chain model yielding an average contour length of 668±12 nm. The mean force for S. sanguinis minor-detachment events was 1.84±0.64 nN, and Poisson analysis decoupled this value into a short-range force component of -1.60±0.34 nN and a long-range force component of -0.55±0.47 nN. Furthermore, a solution of 2 mg/mL chlorhexidine was found to increase adhesion between the bacterial probe and substrate. Overall, single-cell force spectroscopy of living S. sanguinis cells proved to be a reliable way to characterize early-bacterial adhesion onto machined Ti implant surfaces at the nanoscale.

Keywords: atomic force microscopy, biophysics, bacterial adhesion, dental implants, titanium

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