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Prevalence of molar-incisor hypomineralization in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA: a pilot study

Authors Davenport M, Welles AD, Angelopoulou MV, Gonzalez C, Okunseri C, Barbeau L, Bansal NK, Vergotine RJ, Hodgson BD

Received 27 October 2018

Accepted for publication 6 March 2019

Published 30 May 2019 Volume 2019:11 Pages 109—117

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/CCIDE.S172736

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Colin Mak

Peer reviewer comments 5

Editor who approved publication: Professor Katarzyna Emerich


Megan Davenport,1 Andrew D Welles,2 Matina V Angelopoulou,2 Cesar Gonzalez,3 Christopher Okunseri,4 Lori Barbeau,1 Naveen K Bansal,5 Rodney J Vergotine,6 Brian D Hodgson7

1Pediatric Dentistry Residency Program, Children’s Hospital of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53201, USA; 2Marquette University School of Dentistry, Milwaukee, WI 53233, USA; 3Predoctoral Program in Pediatric Dentistry, Marquette University School of Dentistry, Milwaukee, WI 53233, USA; 4Predoctoral Program in Dental Public Health, Marquette University School of Dentistry, Milwaukee, WI 53233, USA; 5Department of Mathematics, Statistics, and Computer Science, Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI, USA; 6College of Dental Medicine – Illinois [CDMI], Midwestern University, Downers Grove, IL, USA; 7Pediatric Dentistry Residency Program, Children’s Hospital of Wisconsin, Marquette University School of Dentistry, Milwaukee, WI, USA

Purpose: This pilot study investigated the prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH) in third-grade school children in Milwaukee Wisconsin, USA.
Methods: A convenience sample of third-grade school children in the Milwaukee Public School System (MPS) participated in the study. Calibrated examiners trained on the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (EAPD) MIH recommendations examined the children between December 1, 2014 and June 30, 2015. Children were examined at their schools using a flashlight and mirror after receiving consent from parents/caregivers and assent from each child. Findings were recorded onto a standardized form by one of five trained examiners. Summary statistics were calculated, and bivariate analysis were done to identify factors associated with MIH.
Results: A total of 375 children (average age =8.66 years, range 7–12) were examined, 60% females and 41% Hispanics. Overall, 36 (9.6%) of the children demonstrated findings consistent with the diagnosis of MIH. Among the teeth with MIH defects, severe defects were higher in lower molars. There were no statistically significant differences between those with and without MIH by sex, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status in this study.
Conclusion: The study revealed that 9.6% of the children examined were affected by MIH. Future studies should focus on statewide and/or nationwide surveys in the United States to ascertain the extent and severity of the condition.

Keywords: molar incisor hypomineralization, MIH, children, prevalence, United States


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