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Prevalence, Morphological Classification, And Factors Associated With Anemia Among Pregnant Women Accessing Antenatal Clinic At Itojo Hospital, South Western Uganda

Authors Okia CC, Aine B, Kiiza R, Omuba P, Wagubi R, Muwanguzi E, Apecu RO, Okongo B, Oyet C

Received 21 May 2019

Accepted for publication 18 September 2019

Published 22 October 2019 Volume 2019:10 Pages 351—357


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Martin Bluth

Claire Catherine Okia,1 Boaz Aine,1 Ronald Kiiza,1 Patrick Omuba,1 Robert Wagubi,1 Enoch Muwanguzi,1 Richard Onyuthi Apecu,1 Benson Okongo,1 Caesar Oyet2

1Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Medicine, Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Mbarara, Uganda; 2Department of Clinical Chemistry, School of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Institute of Allied Health, Clarke International University, Kampala, Uganda

Correspondence: Benson Okongo
Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Medicine, Mbarara University of Science and Technology, P.O.BOX 1410, Mbarara, Uganda
Tel +256-7785 57867
Fax +256 4854 20782

Purpose: The study aimed to determine the prevalence, morphological classification, and risk factors of anemia among pregnant mothers attending antenatal clinic at Itojo hospital, Ntungamo district, southwestern Uganda.
Patients and methods: After obtaining an informed consent, 5mL of blood was collected from the vein of each participant for complete blood count (CBC) and peripheral film report. The CBC was performed using HumaCount 80 hematology analyzer (HUMAN Gesellschaft für Biochemica und Diagnostica mbH Max-Planck-Ring 21 65,205 Wiesbaden Germany). Peripheral blood smears were made and stained using Wright’s Romanowsky stain and examined under ×1000 magnification for morphological classification of anemia. Structured questionnaires were administered to each participant to collect information on patients’ demography and risk factors of anaemia in pregnancy. The data generated were prepared in EXCEL and later transferred to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Univariate logistic regression and multivariate logistic regression were used to evaluate the association of socio-demographic characteristics of the participants with anemia. A 95% confidence level was used and statistical significance was reached at p<0.05.
Results: One hundred and sixty-three participants (n=163) were recruited for the study with the median age of 25 years and range of (17 to 40 years). The overall prevalence of anemia was 12 (7.4%), the morphological classification was 1 (8.3%) normocytic normochromic anemia, 6 (50%) microcytic hypochromic anemia, and 5 (41.7%) macrocytic anemia. Spouse occupation (p=0.03), household income (p=0.04), use of insecticide-treated mosquito nets (p=0.001), history of urinary tract infection (p=0.002), use of haematinics (p≤0.001), and history of postpartum hemorrhage (p=0.03) were significantly associated with anemia in pregnancy.
Conclusion: Despite the reported high prevalence of anemia in pregnancy in other areas within the country, anemia prevalence was low in this study. Routine screening for anemia at all antenatal care clinics countrywide is recommended.

Keywords: anemia, prevalence, risk factors, pregnancy

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