Back to Journals » Patient Preference and Adherence » Volume 9

Prevalence and risk factor analysis of lower extremity abnormal alignment characteristics among rice farmers

Authors Karukunchit U, Puntumetakul R, Swangnetr M, Boucaut R

Received 30 January 2015

Accepted for publication 25 April 2015

Published 17 June 2015 Volume 2015:9 Pages 785—795


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Johnny Chen

Usa Karukunchit,1,2 Rungthip Puntumetakul,1,3 Manida Swangnetr,1,4 Rose Boucaut5

1Research Center in Back, Neck, Other Joint Pain and Human Performance (BNOJPH), 2Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, 3School of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, 4Department of Production Technology, Faculty of Technology, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 5School of Health Sciences (Physiotherapy), iCAHE (International Centre for Allied Health Evidence), Sansom Institute for Health Research, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia

Background: Rice farming activities involve prolonged manual work and human–machine interaction. Prolonged farming risk-exposure may result in lower limb malalignment. This malalignment may increase the risk of lower extremity injury and physical disabilities. However, the prevalence and factors associated with lower extremity malalignment have not yet been reported. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of lower extremity malalignment among rice farmers.
Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 249 rice farmers. Lower extremity alignment assessment included: pelvic tilt angle, limb length equality, femoral torsion, quadriceps (Q) angle, tibiofemoral angle, genu recurvatum, rearfoot angle, and medial longitudinal arch angle. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze participant characteristics and prevalence of lower extremity malalignment. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors.
Results: The highest prevalence of lower extremity malalignment was foot pronation (36.14%), followed by the abnormal Q angle (34.94%), tibiofemoral angle (31.73%), pelvic tilt angle (30.52%), femoral antetorsion (28.11%), limb length inequality (22.49%), tibial torsion (21.29%), and genu recurvatum (11.24%). In females, the risk factors were abnormal Q angle, tibiofemoral angle, and genu recurvatum. Being overweight was a risk factor for abnormal pelvic tilt angle, Q angle, and tibiofemoral angle. Age was a risk factor for limb length inequality. Years of farming were a major risk factor for abnormal Q angle, tibiofemoral angle, and foot malalignment.
Conclusion: Prevalence of lower extremity malalignment was reported in this study. Female sex, being overweight, and years of farming were major risk factors for lower extremity mal­alignment. Lower extremity screening should assist in the identification of foot and knee mal­alignment in rice farmers. This may then lead to early prevention of musculoskeletal disorders arising from such malalignment.

Keywords: lower extremity malalignment, prevalence, rice farmer, risk factors

A Letter to the Editor has been received and published for this article.

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]


Other articles by this author:

Acute effects of single and multiple level thoracic manipulations on chronic mechanical neck pain: a randomized controlled trial

Puntumetakul R, Suvarnnato T, Werasirirat P, Uthaikhup S, Yamauchi J, Boucaut R

Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 2015, 11:137-144

Published Date: 12 January 2015

Prevalence and individual risk factors associated with clinical lumbar instability in rice farmers with low back pain

Puntumetakul R, Yodchaisarn W, Emasithi A, Keawduangdee P, Chatchawan U, Yamauchi J

Patient Preference and Adherence 2015, 9:1-7

Published Date: 16 December 2014

Readers of this article also read:

Green synthesis of water-soluble nontoxic polymeric nanocomposites containing silver nanoparticles

Prozorova GF, Pozdnyakov AS, Kuznetsova NP, Korzhova SA, Emel’yanov AI, Ermakova TG, Fadeeva TV, Sosedova LM

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2014, 9:1883-1889

Published Date: 16 April 2014

Methacrylic-based nanogels for the pH-sensitive delivery of 5-Fluorouracil in the colon

Ashwanikumar N, Kumar NA, Nair SA, Kumar GS

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:5769-5779

Published Date: 15 November 2012

A novel preparation method for silicone oil nanoemulsions and its application for coating hair with silicone

Hu Z, Liao M, Chen Y, Cai Y, Meng L, Liu Y, Lv N, Liu Z, Yuan W

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:5719-5724

Published Date: 12 November 2012

Cross-linked acrylic hydrogel for the controlled delivery of hydrophobic drugs in cancer therapy

Deepa G, Thulasidasan AK, Anto RJ, Pillai JJ, Kumar GS

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:4077-4088

Published Date: 27 July 2012

Crystallization after intravitreal ganciclovir injection

Pitipol Choopong, Nattaporn Tesavibul, Nattawut Rodanant

Clinical Ophthalmology 2010, 4:709-711

Published Date: 14 July 2010