Phytolacca dodecandra (Phytolaccaceae) Root Extract Exhibits Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Activities in Mice with CCl4-Induced Acute Liver Damage
Received 6 November 2020
Accepted for publication 25 January 2021
Published 12 February 2021 Volume 2021:14 Pages 59—70
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Professor Andreas M. Kaiser
Birhanu Geta Meharie,1 Tewodros Agedew Tunta2
1Department of Pharmacy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Wollo University, Dessie, Ethiopia; 2Department of Pharmacy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Ethiopia
Correspondence: Birhanu Geta Meharie Email firstname.lastname@example.org
Background: The liver is a hub of metabolism and detoxification of substances. Since many redox reactions take place in the liver, it is prone to oxidative damage. Unlike conventional agents, botanicals act through several mechanisms in preventing oxidative damage. Among these Phytolacca dodecandra is the most commonly used agent in Ethiopian folk medicine.
Objective: To evaluate antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of the 80% methanol extract of P. dodecandra root.
Methods: Male mice were divided into six groups and treated accordingly. Negative control was given 2% Tween 80, toxicant control administered with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), positive control treated with silymarin 100 mg/kg, and test groups were treated with 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of the extract. Then, serum levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, albumin, total protein, and bilirubin were determined. Determination of the change in body weight and liver weight, histopathologic examination of the liver, and in vitro and in vivo antioxidant assays were also carried out.
Results: The levels of ALP, ALT, AST, GGT, LDH, and bilirubin were significantly reduced, while albumin and total protein were significantly increased after treatment with P. dodecandra root extract at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg in CCl4 intoxicated mice. Cholesterol metabolism and lipoprotein synthesis capabilities of the liver of mice were also returned to normal in the two doses. Besides, the 200 and 400 mg/kg doses were able to return the normal architecture and morphology of hepatocytes. Furthermore, the plant extract was found to scavenge free radicals in vitro and inhibit lipid peroxidation in vivo.
Conclusion: The results suggest that the 80% methanol extract of P. dodecandra root can be used for the management of liver disease.
Keywords: CCl4, DPPH, hepatoprotective, mice, Phytolacca dodecandra, TBARS
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