Back to Journals » International Journal of Nanomedicine » Volume 10 » Issue 1

Parameters and characteristics governing cellular internalization and trans-barrier trafficking of nanostructures

Authors Murugan K, Choonara YE, Kumar P, Bijukumar D, du Toit LC, Pillay V

Received 10 October 2014

Accepted for publication 28 November 2014

Published 18 March 2015 Volume 2015:10(1) Pages 2191—2206

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S75615

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Professor Carlos Rinaldi

Karmani Murugan, Yahya E Choonara, Pradeep Kumar, Divya Bijukumar, Lisa C du Toit, Viness Pillay

Wits Advanced Drug Delivery Platform Research Unit, Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, School of Therapeutic Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa


Abstract: Cellular internalization and trans-barrier transport of nanoparticles can be manipulated on the basis of the physicochemical and mechanical characteristics of nanoparticles. Research has shown that these factors significantly influence the uptake of nanoparticles. Dictating these characteristics allows for the control of the rate and extent of cellular uptake, as well as delivering the drug-loaded nanosystem intra-cellularly, which is imperative for drugs that require a specific cellular level to exert their effects. Additionally, physicochemical characteristics of the nanoparticles should be optimal for the nanosystem to bypass the natural restricting phenomena of the body and act therapeutically at the targeted site. The factors at the focal point of emerging smart nanomedicines include nanoparticle size, surface charge, shape, hydrophobicity, surface chemistry, and even protein and ligand conjugates. Hence, this review discusses the mechanism of internalization of nanoparticles and ideal nanoparticle characteristics that allow them to evade the biological barriers in order to achieve optimal cellular uptake in different organ systems. Identifying these parameters assists with the progression of nanomedicine as an outstanding vector of pharmaceuticals.

Keywords: nanoparticles, transport mechanisms, cellular uptake, size, shape, charge

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]

 

Other articles by this author:

Overview of the role of nanotechnological innovations in the detection and treatment of solid tumors

Frank D, Tyagi C, Tomar L, Choonara YE, du Toit LC, Kumar P, Penny C, Pillay V

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2014, 9:589-613

Published Date: 22 January 2014

In vivo evaluation of a conjugated poly(lactide-ethylene glycol) nanoparticle depot formulation for prolonged insulin delivery in the diabetic rabbit model

Tomar L, Tyagi C, Kumar M, Kumar P, Singh H, Choonara YE, Pillay V

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2013, 8:505-520

Published Date: 4 February 2013

Readers of this article also read:

Predicting frequent COPD exacerbations using primary care data

Kerkhof M, Freeman D, Jones R, Chisholm A, Price DB

International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 2015, 10:2439-2450

Published Date: 9 November 2015

Cytotoxicity and physicochemical characterization of iron–manganese-doped sulfated zirconia nanoparticles [Corrigendum]

Al-Fahdawi MQ, Rasedee A, Al-Qubaisi MS, Alhassan FH, Rosli R, El Zowalaty ME, Naadja SE, Webster TJ, Taufiq-Yap YH

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2015, 10:6657-6658

Published Date: 28 October 2015

Cerium oxide nanoparticle treatment ameliorates peritonitis-induced diaphragm dysfunction

Asano S, Arvapalli R, Manne ND, Maheshwari M, Ma B, Rice KM, Selvaraj V, Blough ER

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2015, 10:6215-6226

Published Date: 5 October 2015

Small molecules against B-RAF (BRAF) Val600Glu (V600E) single mutation

Zaharie F, Cojocneanu-Petric R, Muresan M, Frinc I, Dima D, Petrushev B, Tanase A, Berce C, Chitic M, Berindan-Neagoe I, Pileczki V, Irimie A, Tomuleasa C

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2015, 10:4897-4899

Published Date: 31 July 2015

Gold nanorods/mesoporous silica-based nanocomposite as theranostic agents for targeting near-infrared imaging and photothermal therapy induced with laser

Liu Y, Xu M, Chen Q, Guan G, Hu W, Zhao X, Qiao M, Hu H, Liang Y, Zhu H, Chen D

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2015, 10:4747-4761

Published Date: 28 July 2015

Phthalocyanine-loaded graphene nanoplatform for imaging-guided combinatorial phototherapy

Taratula O, Patel M, Schumann C, Naleway MA, Pang AJ, He H, Taratula O

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2015, 10:2347-2362

Published Date: 24 March 2015

Optimizing stem cell functions and antibacterial properties of TiO2 nanotubes incorporated with ZnO nanoparticles: experiments and modeling

Liu W, Su P, Gonzales III A, Chen S, Wang N, Wang J, Li H, Zhang Z, Webster TJ

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2015, 10:1997-2019

Published Date: 12 March 2015