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Novel insights into the relationship between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and osteoporosis

Authors Filip R, Radzki RP, Bieńko M

Received 20 April 2018

Accepted for publication 26 June 2018

Published 4 October 2018 Volume 2018:13 Pages 1879—1891


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Richard Walker

Rafał Filip,1,2 Radosław P Radzki,3 Marek Bieńko3

1Department of Gastroenterology with IBD Unit, Clinical Hospital 2, Rzeszów, Poland; 2University of Rzeszów, Rzeszów, Poland; 3Department of Animal Physiology, University of Life Sciences, Lublin, Poland

Abstract: Excess fat deposition and insulin resistance are considered the main risk factors for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and therefore, not surprisingly, the global prevalence of NAFLD increases in parallel with both obesity and type 2 diabetes. Although deterioration of bone homeostasis in patients with NAFLD is commonly observed, its etiology has not been fully elucidated yet. It was shown in several studies that bone tissue seems to be independently associated with NAFLD. A mechanistic perspective puts the liver at the center of mutual interdependencies obviously involving adipose tissue and muscles and also the bone matrix and bone cells, which are relatively novel. In this review, various pathophysiological mechanisms and possible mediating molecules that may interplay between NAFLD and bone tissue are described. Chronic inflammation, vitamin D3, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor 1, osteopontin, fetuin-A, irisin, osteocalcin, and osteoprotegerin from osteoblasts have been proposed as mediators of mutual interactions among the skeleton, fatty tissue, and liver. Although to date there are still many issues that have not been elucidated, growing evidence suggests that screening and surveillance of bone mineral density in patients with NAFLD should be considered in future strategies and guidelines for NAFLD management.

Keywords: nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, inflammation, osteoporosis, bone metabolism

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