Novel chitosan/agarose/hydroxyapatite nanocomposite scaffold for bone tissue engineering applications: comprehensive evaluation of biocompatibility and osteoinductivity with the use of osteoblasts and mesenchymal stem cells
Received 27 May 2019
Accepted for publication 6 July 2019
Published 19 August 2019 Volume 2019:14 Pages 6615—6630
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas J. Webster
Paulina Kazimierczak,1 Aleksandra Benko,2 Marek Nocun,2 Agata Przekora1
1Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland; 2Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics, AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow, Poland
Correspondence: Agata Przekora
Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Medical University of Lublin, Chodzki 1 Street, Lublin 20-093, Poland
Tel +48 81 448 7026
Fax +48 81 448 7020
Background: Nanocomposites produced by reinforcement of polysaccharide matrix with nanoparticles are widely used in engineering of biomaterials. However, clinical applications of developed novel biomaterials are often limited due to their poor biocompatibility.
Purpose: The aim of this work was to comprehensively assess biocompatibility of highly macroporous chitosan/agarose/nanohydroxyapatite bone scaffolds produced by a novel method combining freeze-drying with a foaming agent. Within these studies, blood plasma protein adsorption, osteoblast (MC3T3-E1 Subclone 4 and hFOB 1.19) adhesion and proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow and adipose tissue were determined. The obtained results were also correlated with materials’ surface chemistry and wettability to explain the observed protein and cellular response.
Results: Obtained results clearly showed that the developed nanocomposite scaffolds were characterized by high biocompatibility and osteoconductivity. Importantly, the scaffolds also revealed osteoinductive properties since they have the ability to induce osteogenic differentiation (Runx2 synthesis) in undifferentiated mesenchymal stem cells. The surface of biomaterials is extremely hydrophilic, prone to protein adsorption with the highest affinity toward fibronectin binding, which allows for good osteoblast adhesion, spreading, and proliferation.
Conclusion: Produced by a novel method, macroporous nanocomposite biomaterials have great potential to be used in regenerative medicine for acceleration of the bone healing process.
Keywords: XPS, wettability, protein adsorption, osteogenic differentiation, cell proliferation, cryogel
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