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Nitric oxide-releasing poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-polyethylenimine nanoparticles for prolonged nitric oxide release, antibacterial efficacy, and in vivo wound healing activity

Authors Nurhasni H, Cao JF, Choi MJ, Kim I, Lee BL, Jung YJ, Yoo JW

Received 4 February 2015

Accepted for publication 18 March 2015

Published 22 April 2015 Volume 2015:10(1) Pages 3065—3080

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S82199

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas J Webster

Hasan Nurhasni,1 Jiafu Cao,1 Moonjeong Choi,1 Il Kim,2 Bok Luel Lee,1 Yunjin Jung,1 Jin-Wook Yoo1

1College of Pharmacy, Pusan National University, Busan, South Korea; 2Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan, South Korea

Abstract: Nitric oxide (NO)-releasing nanoparticles (NPs) have emerged as a wound healing enhancer and a novel antibacterial agent that can circumvent antibiotic resistance. However, the NO release from NPs over extended periods of time is still inadequate for clinical application. In this study, we developed NO-releasing poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-polyethylenimine (PEI) NPs (NO/PPNPs) composed of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) and PEI/diazeniumdiolate (PEI/NONOate) for prolonged NO release, antibacterial efficacy, and wound healing activity. Successful preparation of PEI/NONOate was confirmed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and ultraviolet/visible spectrophotometry. NO/PPNPs were characterized by particle size, surface charge, and NO loading. The NO/PPNPs showed a prolonged NO release profile over 6 days without any burst release. The NO/PPNPs exhibited potent bactericidal efficacy against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa concentration-dependently and showed the ability to bind on the surface of the bacteria. We also found that the NO released from the NO/PPNPs mediates bactericidal efficacy and is not toxic to healthy fibroblast cells. Furthermore, NO/PPNPs accelerated wound healing and epithelialization in a mouse model of a MRSA-infected wound. Therefore, our results suggest that the NO/PPNPs presented in this study could be a suitable approach for treating wounds and various skin infections.

Keywords: nitric oxide-releasing nanoparticles, PLGA, PEI, antimicrobial, wound healing

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