Nano-biphasic calcium phosphate/polyvinyl alcohol composites with enhanced bioactivity for bone repair via low-temperature three-dimensional printing and loading with platelet-rich fibrin
Received 19 September 2017
Accepted for publication 7 December 2017
Published 25 January 2018 Volume 2018:13 Pages 505—523
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Linlin Sun
Yue Song,1,* Kaifeng Lin,2,* Shu He,3,* Chunmei Wang,1 Shuaishuai Zhang,1 Donglin Li,1 Jimeng Wang,4 Tianqing Cao,1 Long Bi,1 Guoxian Pei1
1Department of Orthopedics, Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, China; 2Second Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Fuzhou General Hospital of Nanjing Military Area Command of Chinese PLA, Fuzhou, China; 3Department of Orthopedics, Xi’an Hong Hui Hospital, Xi’an, China; 4Department of Orthopedics, The 251st Hospital of Chinese PLA, Zhangjiakou, China
*These authors contributed equally to this work
Background and aim: As a newly emerging three-dimensional (3D) printing technology, low-temperature robocasting can be used to fabricate geometrically complex ceramic scaffolds at low temperatures. Here, we aimed to fabricate 3D printed ceramic scaffolds composed of nano-biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) at a low temperature without the addition of toxic chemicals.
Methods: Corresponding nonprinted scaffolds were prepared using a freeze-drying method. Compared with the nonprinted scaffolds, the printed scaffolds had specific shapes and well-connected internal structures.
Results: The incorporation of PRF enabled both the sustained release of bioactive factors from the scaffolds and improved biocompatibility and biological activity toward bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in vitro. Additionally, the printed BCP/PVA/PRF scaffolds promoted significantly better BMSC adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation in vitro than the printed BCP/PVA scaffolds. In vivo, the printed BCP/PVA/PRF scaffolds induced a greater extent of appropriate bone formation than the printed BCP/PVA scaffolds and nonprinted scaffolds in a critical-size segmental bone defect model in rabbits.
Conclusion: These experiments indicate that low-temperature robocasting could potentially be used to fabricate 3D printed BCP/PVA/PRF scaffolds with desired shapes and internal structures and incorporated bioactive factors to enhance the repair of segmental bone defects.
Keywords: three-dimensional printing, nano-biphasic calcium phosphate, polyvinyl alcohol, platelet-rich fibrin, bone substitutes, tissue engineering
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