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Multimodal near-infrared-emitting PluS Silica nanoparticles with fluorescent, photoacoustic, and photothermal capabilities

Authors Biffi S, Petrizza L, Garrovo C, Rampazzo E, Andolfi L, Giustetto P, Nikolov I, Kurdi G, Danailov M, Zauli G, Secchiero P, Prodi L

Received 29 February 2016

Accepted for publication 1 June 2016

Published 22 September 2016 Volume 2016:11 Pages 4865—4874


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 4

Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas Webster

Stefania Biffi,1 Luca Petrizza,2 Chiara Garrovo,1 Enrico Rampazzo,2 Laura Andolfi,3 Pierangela Giustetto,4 Ivaylo Nikolov,5 Gabor Kurdi,5 Miltcho Boyanov Danailov,5 Giorgio Zauli,1 Paola Secchiero,6 Luca Prodi2

1Institute for Maternal and Child Health – IRCCS “Burlo Garofolo”, Trieste, 2Department of Chemistry ‘‘G Ciamician’’, University of Bologna, Bologna, 3IOM-CNR TASC Laboratory, Basovizza, Trieste, 4Ephoran – Multi-Imaging Solutions, Bioindustry Park Silvano Fumero, Torino, 5Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste, Trieste, 6Department of Morphology, Surgery and Experimental Medicine and LTTA Centre, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy

Purpose: The aim of the present study was to develop nanoprobes with theranostic features, including – at the same time – photoacoustic, near-infrared (NIR) optical imaging, and photothermal properties, in a versatile and stable core–shell silica-polyethylene glycol (PEG) nanoparticle architecture.
Materials and methods: We synthesized core–shell silica-PEG nanoparticles by a one-pot direct micelles approach. Fluorescence emission and photoacoustic and photothermal properties were obtained at the same time by appropriate doping with triethoxysilane-derivatized cyanine 5.5 (Cy5.5) and cyanine 7 (Cy7) dyes. The performances of these nanoprobes were measured in vitro, using nanoparticle suspensions in phosphate-buffered saline and blood, dedicated phantoms, and after incubation with MDA-MB-231 cells.
Results: We obtained core–shell silica-PEG nanoparticles endowed with very high colloidal stability in water and in biological environment, with absorption and fluorescence emission in the NIR field. The presence of Cy5.5 and Cy7 dyes made it possible to reach a more reproducible and higher doping regime, producing fluorescence emission at a single excitation wavelength in two different channels, owing to the energy transfer processes within the nanoparticle. The nanoarchitecture and the presence of both Cy5.5 and Cy7 dyes provided a favorable agreement between fluorescence emission and quenching, to achieve optical imaging and photoacoustic and photothermal properties.
Conclusion: We obtained rationally designed nanoparticles with outstanding stability in biological environment. At appropriate doping regimes, the presence of Cy5.5 and Cy7 dyes allowed us to tune fluorescence emission in the NIR for optical imaging and to exploit quenching processes for photoacoustic and photothermal capabilities. These nanostructures are promising in vivo theranostic tools for the near future.

Keywords: dye-doped nanoparticles, optical imaging, NIR imaging, photoacoustic imaging, photothermal therapy, PEGylated nanoparticles

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