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Molecular targets in arthritis and recent trends in nanotherapy

Authors Roy K, Kanwar R, Kanwar J

Received 24 May 2015

Accepted for publication 8 July 2015

Published 26 August 2015 Volume 2015:10(1) Pages 5407—5420

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S89156

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Preety Sahdev

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Thomas J Webster

Kislay Roy, Rupinder Kaur Kanwar, Jagat Rakesh Kanwar

Nanomedicine-Laboratory of Immunology and Molecular Biomedical Research (NLIMBR), Centre for Molecular and Medical Research (C-MMR), Strategic Research Centre, School of Medicine (SoM), Faculty of Health, Deakin University, Waurn Ponds, VIC, Australia

Abstract: Due to its severity and increasing epidemiology, arthritis needs no description. There are various forms of arthritis most of which are disabling, very painful, and common. In spite of breakthroughs in the field of drug discovery, there is no cure for arthritis that can eliminate the disease permanently and ease the pain. The present review focuses on some of the most successful drugs in arthritis therapy and their side effects. Potential new targets in arthritis therapy such as interleukin-1β, interleukin-17A, tumor necrosis factor alpha, osteopontin, and several others have been discussed here, which can lead to refinement of current therapeutic modalities. Mechanisms for different forms of arthritis have been discussed along with the molecules that act as potential biomarkers for arthritis. Due to the difficulty in monitoring the disease progression to detect the advanced manifestations of the diseases, drug-induced cytotoxicity, and problems with drug delivery; nanoparticle therapy has gained the attention of the researchers. The unique properties of nanoparticles make them highly attractive for the design of novel therapeutics or diagnostic agents for arthritis. The review also focuses on the recent trends in nanoformulation development used for arthritis therapy. This review is, therefore, important because it describes the relevance and need for more arthritis research, it brings forth a critical discussion of successful drugs in arthritis and analyses the key molecular targets. The review also identifies several knowledge gaps in the published research so far along with the proposal of new ideas and future directions in arthritis therapy.

Keywords: osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, interleukin, osteopontin, nanoparticle, bovine lactoferrin

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