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Microbiome in atopic dermatitis

Authors Wollina U

Received 12 December 2016

Accepted for publication 23 January 2017

Published 22 February 2017 Volume 2017:10 Pages 51—56

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/CCID.S130013

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Aayush Gupta

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Jeffrey Weinberg


Uwe Wollina

Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Academic Teaching Hospital Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Dresden, Germany

Abstract: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease affecting ~10–20% of the general population. AD is characterized by disturbances in epidermal barrier function and hyperactive immune response. Recently, changes in the skin and intestinal microbiome have been analyzed in more detail. The available data suggest a link between disturbed skin microbiome and course of the disease. Flares of the disease are associated with an expansion of Staphylococcus aureus on lesional skin and a substantial loss of biodiversity in skin microbiome. Staphylococci exoproteins and superantigens evoke inflammatory reactions in the host. Skin microbiome includes superficial stratum corneum that is affected by environmental factors such as exposure to germs and cleansing. Available evidence argues for a link between epidermal barrier impairment and disturbances in skin microbiome in AD. In contrast to skin microbiome, intestinal microbiome seems to become stabilized after infancy. There is also a significant heritable component for intestinal microbiome. The microbial taxa, relative percentages and quantities vary remarkably between the different parts of the intestinal tract. Early intestinal microbial colonization may be a critical step for prevention of further development of AD. Skin barrier-aimed topical treatments help to develop a neo-microbiome from deeper compartments. Probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics have been investigated for the treatment of AD, but further investigations are needed. Targeted treatment options to normalize skin and intestinal microbiome in AD are under investigation.

Keywords:
atopic dermatitis, microbiome, staphylococci, skin, intestine, antimicrobial peptides

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