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Mapping of dendritic lesions in patients with herpes simplex keratitis using in vivo confocal microscopy

Authors Yokogawa H, Kobayashi A, Mori N, Sugiyama K

Received 16 July 2015

Accepted for publication 27 July 2015

Published 24 September 2015 Volume 2015:9 Pages 1771—1777

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S92517

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Cem Ozgonul

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser


Hideaki Yokogawa, Akira Kobayashi, Natsuko Mori, Kazuhisa Sugiyama

Department of Ophthalmology, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa, Japan

Purpose: To produce a two-dimensional reconstruction map of dendritic lesions in patients with herpes simplex keratitis (HSK) using in vivo confocal microscopy.
Methods: Four eyes of four patients (mean 65.8 years) with HSK presenting with a dendritic lesion were enrolled. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy and in vivo laser confocal microscopy were performed. Acquired confocal images at the level of the epithelium were arranged and mapped into subconfluent montages. Changes in the shape and degree of light reflection of abnormal cells and deposits around dendritic lesions as well as other corneal layers were qualitatively evaluated.
Results: Mapping of dendritic lesion was successful in all cases, and the subconfluent montages clearly showed the larger image of dendritic lesion. In all cases, the dendritic lesion consisted of hyperreflective irregular epithelial cells, and was surrounded by distorted and elongated epithelial cells. In three cases, hyperreflective deposits were noted at the midline of the lesion. The corneal stroma showed a hyperreflective honeycomb pattern. In two cases, inflammatory cells were observed at the level of endothelial cell layer.
Conclusion: Mapping of dendritic lesions in patients with HSK was successful in all patients using in vivo confocal microscopy. Cellular level observation of dendritic lesion at a relatively larger magnification may help understand the in vivo morphological change of HSK. Further study in more patients with HSK and nonherpetic dendritic lesion is needed to utilize confocal microscopy images in differential diagnosis and follow-up of the epithelial lesions with dendrite.

Keywords: herpetic epithelial keratitis, in vivo confocal microscopy, fluorescein slit-lamp photograph, hyperreflective irregular epithelial cells, dendritic lesion

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