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Low-back pain at the emergency department: still not being managed?

Authors Rizzardo A, Miceli L, Bednarova R, Guadagnin GM, Sbrojavacca R, Della Rocca G

Received 6 July 2015

Accepted for publication 24 December 2015

Published 12 February 2016 Volume 2016:12 Pages 183—187

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/TCRM.S91898

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Chung-Liang Lai

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Garry Walsh

Alessandro Rizzardo,1 Luca Miceli,1 Rym Bednarova,2 Giovanni Maria Guadagnin,1 Rodolfo Sbrojavacca,3 Giorgio Della Rocca1

1Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Academic Hospital of Udine, University of Udine, Udine, 2Pain Medicine and Palliative Care, Health Company Number 2, Gorizia, 3Emergency Department, Academic Hospital of Udine, Udine, Italy

Background: Low-back pain (LBP) affects about 40% of people at some point in their lives. In the presence of “red flags”, further tests must be done to rule out underlying problems; however, biomedical imaging is currently overused. LBP involves large in-hospital and out-of-hospital economic costs, and it is also the most common musculoskeletal disorder seen in emergency departments (EDs).
Patients and methods: This retrospective observational study enrolled 1,298 patients admitted to the ED, including all International Classification of Diseases 10 diagnosis codes for sciatica, lumbosciatica, and lumbago. We collected patients’ demographic data, medical history, lab workup and imaging performed at the ED, drugs administered at the ED, ED length of stay (LOS), numeric rating scale pain score, admission to ward, and ward LOS data. Thereafter, we performed a cost analysis.
Results: Mean numeric rating scale scores were higher than 7/10. Home medication consisted of no drug consumption in up to 90% of patients. Oxycodone–naloxone was the strong opioid most frequently prescribed for the home. Once at the ED, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and opiates were administered to up to 72% and 42% of patients, respectively. Imaging was performed in up to 56% of patients. Mean ED LOS was 4 hours, 14 minutes. A total of 43 patients were admitted to a ward. The expense for each non-ward-admitted patient was approximately €200 in the ED, while the mean expense for ward-admitted patients was €9,500, with a mean LOS of 15 days.
Conclusion: There is not yet a defined therapeutic care process for the patient with LBP with clear criteria for an ED visit. It is to this end that we need a clinical pathway for the prehospital management of LBP syndrome and consequently for an in-hospital time-saving therapeutic approach to the patient.

Keywords: low-back pain, health policies, emergency department, cost analysis

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