Loading Amlodipine on Diamond Nanoparticles: A Novel Drug Delivery System
Received 26 September 2019
Accepted for publication 31 October 2019
Published 3 January 2020 Volume 2019:12 Pages 47—53
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Professor Israel (Rudi) Rubinstein
Shawqi H Alawdi,1,2 Housam Eidi,3 Marwa M Safar,4,5 Mosaad A Abdel-Wahhab6
1Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Thamar University, Dhamar, Yemen; 2Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Science and Technology, Sana’a, Yemen; 3Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada; 4Pharmacology and Toxicology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt; 5Pharmacology and Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, The British University in Egypt, El Shorouk, Egypt; 6Department of Food Toxicology and Contaminants, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt
Correspondence: Shawqi H Alawdi
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Thamar University, Sana’a Street, Dhamar, Yemen
Background: Diamond nanoparticles (Nanodiamond) are biocompatible drug delivery platforms with outstanding surface properties. Their passage into the brain has been confirmed previously. Thus, nanodiamond could provide a drug delivery system to shuttle several drugs through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) which represents a real challenge for the effective delivery of several drugs into the brain. Amlodipine is a calcium channel blocker that cannot pass through BBB and may elicit neuroprotective effects to reverse calcium-induced excitotoxicity and mitochondrial dysfunction that underlie several neurologic disorders including Alzheimer’s disease and stroke.
Aim: The study aimed to investigate the loading of amlodipine on nanodiamond particles.
Methods: Nanodiamond particles were oxidized in a strong oxidizing acidic mixture of sulfuric and nitric acids. Adsorption of amlodipine on nanodiamond particles was achieved in alkaline pH using various concentrations of sodium hydroxide. The loaded amlodipine was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy.
Results: The highest percentage (41%) of loaded amlodipine onto nanodiamond particles was achieved in alkaline medium using 2 mM NaOH at a corresponding pH of 8.5. Also, characteristic FTIR bands of amlodipine and nanodiamond were shown obviously in the nanodiamond–amlodipine conjugates. Moreover, the successful loading of amlodipine on diamond nanoparticles was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy.
Conclusion: The present study demonstrates the successful loading of amlodipine onto nanodiamond particles. These findings offer a potential for applying diamond nanoparticles as a drug delivery system to shuttle amlodipine into the brain and open the door to deliver other similar drugs into the brain.
Keywords: diamond nanoparticles, nanodiamond, amlodipine, calcium channel antagonists, drug delivery system, blood-brain barrier, excitotoxicity
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