Linalool-Loaded Glutathione-Modified Gold Nanoparticles Conjugated with CALNN Peptide as Apoptosis Inducer and NF-κB Translocation Inhibitor in SKOV-3 Cell Line
Received 15 August 2020
Accepted for publication 3 November 2020
Published 17 November 2020 Volume 2020:15 Pages 9025—9047
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Dr Ebrahim Mostafavi
Majid Jabir,1 Usama I Sahib,1 Zainab Taqi,1 Ali Taha,1 Ghassan Sulaiman,1 Salim Albukhaty,2 Ahmed Al-Shammari,3 Mona Alwahibi,4 Dina Soliman,4 Yaser Hassan Dewir,5,6 Humaira Rizwana4
1University of Technology, Department of Applied Science, Baghdad, Iraq; 2University of Misan, Department of Basic Science, Misan, Iraq; 3Al-Mustansiriyah University, Iraqi Center for Cancer and Medical Genetic Research, Experimental Therapy Department, Baghdad, Iraq; 4King Saud University, Department of Botany and Microbiology, Riyadh 11495, Saudi Arabia; 5King Saud University, College of Food and Agriculture Sciences, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia; 6Kafrelsheikh University, Faculty of Agriculture, Kafr El-Sheikh 33516, Egypt
Correspondence: Majid Jabir; Ghassan Sulaiman Email firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com
Background: Linalool is a monoterpene compound with various potential therapeutic applications in several medical fields. Previous studies have indicated the activity of linalool against cell lines; however, its high level of toxicity restricts its use. The aim of this study was to design and manufacture compounds with a novel structure that can be used for loading linalool, to reduce its toxicity and improve its reachable ability.
Methods: We synthesized and characterized a new molecule for loading linalool onto gold nanoparticles (GNPs) capped with glutathione and conjugated with a CALNN peptide. Linalool was loaded onto the GNPs via the reaction of the surface groups of both linalool and the GNPs. Moreover, the target peptide could be loaded onto the surface of the GNPs via a chemical reaction. The cytotoxic effects of linalool–GNP (LG) and linalool–GNP–CALNN peptide (LGC) conjugates against ovarian cancer cells were investigated, as were the possible mechanisms underlying the induction of apoptosis.
Results: Our findings illustrated the significant antiproliferative effect of LG and LGC on SKOV-3 cells. The cytotoxicity assay demonstrated that LG and LGC were selectively toxic in cancer cells and induced apoptosis by activating caspase-8, the p53 protein, and various proteins involved in apoptosis. The present data demonstrated that LG and LGC have a high therapeutic potential and should be given particular consideration as anticancer drug-delivery systems, as LG and LGC were remarkably more cytotoxic against a cancer cell line than were linalool and GNPs alone.
Conclusion: We concluded that LG and LGC are promising compounds that can be used for treating ovarian cancer (SKOV-3) cells via the induction of apoptosis through extrinsic and intrinsic pathways.
Keywords: linalool, gold nanoparticles, CALNN, SKOV-3, p53, caspase-8, NF-κB translocation
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