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Injectable hydrogel composite containing modified gold nanoparticles: implication in bone tissue regeneration

Authors Lee D, Heo DN, Nah HR, Lee SJ, Ko WK, Lee JS, Moon HJ, Bang JB, Hwang YS, Reis RL, Kwon IK

Received 29 August 2018

Accepted for publication 25 September 2018

Published 1 November 2018 Volume 2018:13 Pages 7019—7031

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S185715

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Cristina Weinberg

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas J Webster


Donghyun Lee,1 Dong Nyoung Heo,2 Ha Ram Nah,3 Sang Jin Lee,1 Wan-Kyu Ko,4 Jae Seo Lee,3 Ho-Jin Moon,1 Jae Beum Bang,5 Yu-Shik Hwang,6 Rui L Reis,1,7 Il Keun Kwon1

1Department of Dental Materials, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea; 2Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Pennsylvania State University, Pennsylvania 16802, USA; 3Department of Detistry, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea; 4Department of Neurosurgery, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 13496, Republic of Korea; 5Department of Dental Education, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea; 6Department of Maxillofacial Biomedical Engineering, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea; 7The Discoveries Centre for Regenerative and Precision Medicine, Headquarters at University of Minho, Barco, Guimarães, Portugal

Background: For effective bone regeneration, it is necessary to implant a biocompatible scaffold that is capable of inducing cell growth and continuous osteogenic stimulation at the defected site. Here, we suggest an injectable hydrogel system using enzymatic cross-linkable gelatin (Gel) and functionalized gold nanoparticles (GNPs).
Methods: In this work, tyramine (Ty) was synthesized on the gelatin backbone (Gel-Ty) to enable a phenol crosslinking reaction with horseradish peroxidase (HRP). N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) was attached to the GNPs surface (G-NAC) for promoting osteo-differentiation.
Results: The Gel-Ty hydrogels containing G-NAC (Gel-Ty/G-NAC) had suitable mechanical strength and biocompatibility to embed and support the growth of human adipose derived stem cells (hASCs) during a proliferation test for three days. In addition, G-NAC promoted osteo-differentiation both when it was included in Gel-Ty and when it was used directly in hASCs. The osteogenic effects were demonstrated by the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity test.
Conclusion: These findings indicate that the phenol crosslinking reaction is suitable for injectable hydrogels for tissue regeneration and G-NAC stimulate bone regeneration. Based on our results, we suggest that Gel-Ty/G-NAC hydrogels can serve both as a biodegradable graft material for bone defect treatment and as a good template for tissue engineering applications such as drug delivery, cell delivery, and various tissue regeneration uses.

Keywords: nanomaterial, gelatin, enzymatic cross-linking, osteogenesis, N-acetyl cysteine

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