Improved antibacterial activity and biocompatibility on vancomycin-loaded TiO2 nanotubes: in vivo and in vitro studies
Hangzhou Zhang,1 Yu Sun,1 Ang Tian,2 Xiang Xin Xue,2 Lin Wang,1 Ali Alquhali,1 Xizhuang Bai1
1Department of Sports Medicine and Joint Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, 2School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang, People's Republic of China
Abstract: The goal for current orthopedic implant research is to design implants that have not only good biocompatibility but also antibacterial properties. TiO2 nanotubes (NTs) were fabricated on the titanium surface through electrochemical anodization, which added new properties, such as enhanced biocompatibility and potential utility as drug nanoreservoirs. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antibacterial properties and biocompatibility of NTs loaded with vancomycin (NT-V), both in vitro and in vivo. Staphylococcus aureus was used to study the antibacterial properties of the NT-V. There were three study groups: the commercially pure titanium (Cp-Ti) group, the NT group (nonloaded vancomycin), and the NT-V group. We compared NT-V biocompatibility and antibacterial efficacy with those of the NT and Cp-Ti groups. Compared with Cp-Ti, NT-V showed good antibacterial effect both in vitro and in vivo. Although the NTs reduced the surface bacterial adhesion in vitro, implant infection still developed in in vivo studies. Furthermore, the results also revealed that both NTs and NT-V showed good biocompatibility. Therefore, the NTs loaded with antibiotic might be potentially used for future orthopedic implants.
Keywords: TiO2 nanotubes, biocompatibility, antibacterial properties, osteoblasts, vancomycin
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