Graphene Oxide and Stabilized Ortho-Silicic Acid as Modifiers of Amnion and Burn Affected Skin: A Comparative Study
Received 3 December 2020
Accepted for publication 3 February 2021
Published 9 March 2021 Volume 2021:14 Pages 49—67
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Professor Israel (Rudi) Rubinstein
Anna Pielesz,1 Janusz Fabia,1 Włodzimierz Biniaś,1 Ryszard Fryczkowski,1 Beata Fryczkowska,1 Andrzej Gawłowski,1 Alicja Machnicka,2 Rafał Bobiński,3 Henk-Maarten Laane,4 Wioletta Waksmańska5
1Faculty of Materials, Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Bielsko-Biala, Bielsko-Biala, Poland; 2Department of Microbiology and Environmental Technology, Institute of Engineering and Environmental Protection, University of Bielsko-Biała, Bielsko-Biala, Poland; 3Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Bielsko-Biala, Bielsko-Biala, Poland; 4ReXil Agro BV, Hengelo, OV, The Netherlands; 5Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Public Health, University of Bielsko-Biala, Bielsko-Biala, Poland
Correspondence: Anna Pielesz
University of Bielsko-Biala, ul. Willowa 2, Bielsko-Biala, 43-309, Poland
Tel +48 33 8279114
Fax +48 33 8279355
Email [email protected]
Introduction: Oxidative tissue damage caused by reactive oxygen species results in a significant decrease in the total antioxidant capacity of the biological system. The aim of this interdisciplinary study was to answer the question of whether active antioxidants modify, at a molecular and supramolecular level, the tissue of pathological amnion and the necrotic eschar degraded in thermal burn.
Methods: A Nicolet 6700 Fourier-transform spectrophotometer with OMNIC software and the EasiDiff diffusion accessory were used in the FTIR spectroscopic analysis. A NICOLET MAGNA-IR 860 spectrometer with FT-Raman accessory was used to record the Raman spectra of the samples. The samples were exposed to bacteria capable of causing nosocomial infections, ie Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Whereas samples of hypotrophic amnion interacted with Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis. The obtained flame retardant effect of placentas was evaluated using the method of the limiting oxygen index (LOI).
Results: The infrared spectroscopy analysis proved that after modification of the amniotic samples in graphene oxide and ortho-silicic acid, the amide II band is split into two components. Incubation of samples in modifier solutions: graphene oxide, sodium ascorbate and L-ascorbic acid results in shifts and changes of intensity within the broadly understood lipid band 1743– 1745– 1747 cm− 1. The oxidising changes observed within the lipid and amide bands are affected by the incubation effect of graphene oxide as a modifier, possibly adsorbing on the surface of the amniotic membrane. On the basis of microbiological studies, pathogenic bacteria commonly causing amniotic infections and growing in burn wounds were found to have particularly good resistance to stabilized ortho-silicic acid (E. coli) and lactoferrin (S.aureus).
Conclusion: This thermogravimetric study found the highest stability of the analysed tissues (hypotrophic amnion and burnt epidermis) after modification with graphene oxide and sodium ascorbate.
Keywords: graphene oxide, stabilized ortho-silicic acid, sodium ascorbate, L-ascorbic acid
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