Fundus autofluorescence features in the inflammatory maculopathies
Cecilia S Lee,1 Aaron Y Lee,2 Farzin Forooghian,3 Chris S Bergstrom,1 Jiong Yan,1 Steven Yeh1
1Section of Vitreoretinal Disease and Surgery, Department of Ophthalmology, Emory Eye Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, MO, USA; 3Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
Purpose: To describe the fundus autofluorescence (FAF) features of the inflammatory maculopathies and develop a quantification method for FAF analysis.
Methods: This is a retrospective, consecutive case series of patients with inflammatory maculopathies from two tertiary centers. The clinical findings, demographics, and FAF imaging characteristics were reviewed. Foveal autofluorescence (AF) was analyzed. Median and standard deviation (SD) of foveal AF intensity were measured.
Results: Thirty eyes of 15 patients were evaluated with both qualitative and quantitative FAF analysis. In acute macular neuroretinopathy, the active phase showed foveal hypoautofluorescence, which became hypoautofluorescent with resolution. In acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy, multiple lesions with hypoautofluorescent centers with hyperautofluorescent borders were observed in active disease and became hypoautofluorescent with disease convalescence. In multifocal choroiditis and punctate inner choroiditis, the active hyperautofluorescent lesions progressed to inactive, hypoautofluorescent scars. Active serpiginous choroiditis showed hyperautofluorescent borders adjacent to a helicoid-shaped, hypoautofluorescent scar. Active unilateral acute idiopathic maculopathy (UAIM) showed a complex pattern of hypo- and hyperautoflourescence in the macula. The median foveal AF was the greatest in acute macular neuroretinopathy and UAIM among the maculopathies, while the greatest SD of foveal AF intensity was observed in UAIM.
Conclusion: The active phase of the majority of inflammatory maculopathies was characterized by hyperautofluorescent lesions. Increased SD of foveal AF correlated with a mixture of hypo- and hyperautoflourescence. Median and SD may be useful metrics in foveal AF and quantifiable values that may be assessed over time as a disease process evolves. Improvements in quantification methods of FAF imaging may allow us to objectively evaluate posterior uveitis.
Keywords: posterior uveitis, foveal autofluorescence, quantification, fundus autofluorescence imaging
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