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Hydrogen sulfide-releasing naproxen suppresses colon cancer cell growth and inhibits NF-κB signaling

Authors Kodela R, Nath N, Chattopadhyay M, Nesbitt DE, Velázquez-Martínez CA, Kashfi K

Received 25 June 2015

Accepted for publication 17 July 2015

Published 24 August 2015 Volume 2015:9 Pages 4873—4882


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Professor Shu-Feng Zhou

Ravinder Kodela,1 Niharika Nath,2 Mitali Chattopadhyay,1 Diandra E Nesbitt,1 Carlos A Velázquez-Martínez,3 Khosrow Kashfi1

Department of Physiology, Pharmacology and Neuroscience, Sophie Davis School of Biomedical Education, City University of New York Medical School, 2Department of Life Sciences, New York Institute of Technology, New York, NY, USA; 3Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada

Abstract: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of death due to cancer and the third most common cancer in men and women in the USA. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) is known to be activated in CRC and is strongly implicated in its development and progression. Therefore, activated NF-κB constitutes a bona fide target for drug development in this type of malignancy. Many epidemiological and interventional studies have established nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) as a viable chemopreventive strategy against CRC. Our previous studies have shown that several novel hydrogen sulfide-releasing NSAIDs are promising anticancer agents and are safer derivatives of NSAIDs. In this study, we examined the growth inhibitory effect of a novel H2S-releasing naproxen (HS-NAP), which has a repertoire as a cardiovascular-safe NSAID, for its effects on cell proliferation, cell cycle phase transitions, and apoptosis using HT-29 human colon cancer cells. We also investigated its effect as a chemopreventive agent in a xenograft mouse model. HS-NAP suppressed the growth of HT-29 cells by induction of G0/G1 arrest and apoptosis and downregulated NF-κB. Tumor xenografts in mice were significantly reduced in volume. The decrease in tumor mass was associated with a reduction of cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis, and decreases in NF-κB levels in vivo. Therefore, HS-NAP demonstrates strong anticancer potential in CRC.

Keywords: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, cell cycle, apoptosis, xenograft, NF-κB, thioredoxin reductase, chemoprevention

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