Exploring the influence of a cooling treatment on quality of life in patients with chronic venous disease
Authors Kelechi TJ, Mueller M, Madisetti M, Prentice MA, Dooley MJ
Received 8 January 2017
Accepted for publication 11 March 2017
Published 22 May 2017 Volume 2017:4 Pages 65—76
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Colin Mak
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Professor Marco Romanelli
Teresa J Kelechi, Martina Mueller, Mohan Madisetti, Margie A Prentice, Mary J Dooley
College of Nursing, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA
Purpose: The study aimed to evaluate the influence of a self-administered cooling intervention on quality of life (QOL) associated with chronic venous disease (CVD), stages clinical, etiological, anatomical, pathophysiological (CEAP) C4 (skin damage) and C5 (healed ulcer).
Study design and subjects: A sample of 276 individuals was randomized to receive a cooling (n=138) or placebo control cuff (n=138) applied to the leg skin affected by CVD. Both groups also received standard of care that included compression, leg elevation, and physical activity. QOL was measured with the venous insufficiency epidemiological and economic study (VEINES)-QOL and symptom (Sym) subscale Questionnaire at 5 time points during the 9-month study. Relationships between treatment outcomes and demographics were analyzed.
Results: Cooling and control groups had significant increases from baseline in mean change VEINES-QOL scores (13.5 vs 12.8, p<0.0001) and Sym scores (10.4 vs 6.7, p<0.0001). No significant difference was observed for VEINES-QOL between the groups (Δ =0.67, p=0.58); however, the difference was significant for Sym for cooling (Δ =3.7, p=0.015). Overall QOL improvements were significant for females compared to males (p<0.001), not employed full-time (p<0.001), living in rural areas (p<0.002), and less effective for larger calf circumference (p=0.042). For age groups ≥65 years, cooling produced significant improvements in QOL (10.8 vs 4.5, p<0.0004); the control group symptoms worsened during the study (–1.0 vs 8.1, p<0.0001).
Conclusion: This cooling intervention improved QOL. The greatest improvements were observed in older individuals, females, those who were married, not working full time, and living in rural areas. CVD remains a poorly controlled chronic condition and has a major negative influence on QOL.
Keywords: chronic venous disease, quality of life, cooling therapy, negative symptoms, cryotherapy, venous disorders
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