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Evaluation of an advanced pressure ulcer management protocol followed by trained wound, ostomy, and continence nurses: a non-randomized controlled trial

Authors Kaitani T, Nakagami G, Sugama J, Tachi M, Matsuyama Y, Miyachi Y, Nagase T, Takemura Y, Sanada H

Received 22 August 2014

Accepted for publication 20 December 2014

Published 24 February 2015 Volume 2015:2 Pages 39—51

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/CWCMR.S73093

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 5

Editor who approved publication: Professor Marco Romanelli


Toshiko Kaitani,1 Gojiro Nakagami,2 Junko Sugama,3 Masahiro Tachi,4 Yutaka Matsuyama,5 Yoshiki Miyachi,6 Takashi Nagase,2 Yukie Takemura,7 Hiromi Sanada2

1School of Nursing, Sapporo City University, Hokkaido, Japan; 2Department of Gerontological Nursing/Wound Care Management, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Clinical Nursing, Institute of Medical, Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan; 4Department of Plastic Surgery, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Miyagi, Japan; 5Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; 6Department of Dermatology, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan; 7Department of Nursing, Research Hospital, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

Aims and objectives: We investigated the effectiveness and safety of an advanced pressure ulcer (PU) management protocol comprising 1) ultrasonography to assess the deep tissue, 2) use of a non-contact thermometer to detect critical colonization, 3) conservative sharp debridement, 4) dressing selection, 5) negative pressure wound therapy, and 6) vibration therapy in comparison with those of a conventional approach. Each protocol was followed by trained wound, ostomy, and continence nurses (WOCNs).
Background: At present, there is no systematic PU management protocol for nurses that includes appropriate assessment and intervention techniques for deep tissue injury and critical colonization. In Japan, there is no such protocol that the nurses can follow without a physician’s orders.
Design and methods: This was a prospective non-randomized controlled trial. Over a 3-week period, we evaluated the effectiveness of an advanced protocol by comparing the PU severity and healing on the basis of the DESIGN-R scale and presence of patients' discomfort. We recruited ten WOCNs to follow the advanced protocol and 19 others as controls. Statistical analysis included a linear mixed-effects model and a logistic regression model.
Results: In week 0–1, the advanced protocol was significantly associated with prevention of PU deterioration. Using the linear mixed-effects model, we observed a greater decrease in the DESIGN-R score (healing) in the advanced protocol group. There were no reports of excessive bleeding, pain or infection with the advanced protocol.
Conclusion: Using the advanced protocol, WOCNs detected PU severity, assessed PUs, and treated PUs safely. This protocol prevented PU deterioration and/or facilitated wound healing.
Relevance to clinical practice: With proper training, WOCNs can assess and treat PUs safer and quicker than when a physician's assessment is required, leading to an improvement in wound healing and prevention of PU deterioration.

Keywords: pressure ulcers, WOCN, interventions, protocols, deep tissue injury

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